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Stylistics ENG 551 Lecture # 3.

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1 Stylistics ENG 551 Lecture # 3

2 Stylistics Adopts multidisciplinary approach to achieve its goals.
Examines language use in different contexts in order to determine the style, purposes, meaning and the over all merit of the writing. With the techniques of stylistics at your disposal you will be able to evaluate any instance of language use with respect to its content and form.

3 Stylistics Stylistics enables us to interact meaningfully with a text. It opens our mind to the various dimensions of a literary work. It is a discipline which is relevant to all activities which rely on the use of language. Through our knowledge of stylistics, our ability of appreciating texts will increase. Stylistics will make us informed observers and analysts of language use in the process of negotiating meaning.

4 Types of Stylistics Linguistic stylistics and Literary stylistics as two broad types of Stylistics. Discuss Linguistic Stylistics and see how analysis can be done at some levels of language description.

5 Objectives Mention two types of Stylistics and distinguish between them. Identify some features that can be looked at in a linguistic analysis. Explain what is involved in a stylistic analysis of a literary text.

6 Linguistic Stylistics
According to Ayeomoni Linguistic Stylistics is also known by the following terms: (Ayeomoni, N (2003) “Role of Stylistics in Literary Studies’ Formal Stylistics ( Widdowson) Modern Stylistics (Freeman) The New Stylistics (Fowler) Literary Linguistic Stylistics (Michael Short)

7 Linguistic Stylistics
Linguistic stylistics explores the linguistic features of a text. There is reference to style as the selection of certain linguistic forms or features over other possible ones linguistic stylistics therefore points out those linguistic choices which a writer or a speaker has made as well as the effects of the choices.

8 Linguistic Stylistics
Linguistic Stylistics is primarily concerned with the use of language and its effects in a text. E.g. A poem: a linguistic stylistic analysis will be interested in describing the form and function of language in the poem, paying attention to certain “curiosities” that may be accounted for in linguistic terms.

9 Example: Robert Browning Porphyria’s Lover
The rain set early in tonight, The sullen wind was soon awake, It tore the elm-tops down for spite, And did its worst to vex the lake

10 Linguistic Stylistics
Linguistic Stylistics directs its attention on how a piece of discourse expresses the b. (linguistic features that can be examined on the levels of language) lexis, semantics, syntax, graphology, phonology etc (elements of language)

11 Linguistic Stylistics
Linguistics is the “academic discipline which studies language scientifically” (Crystal 1969: 10) and is concerned with language usage and its applicability. Crystal. D. “Investigating English Style”

12 Difference between Linguistic Stylistics & Literary Stylistics
Linguistic Stylistics studies the devices in language of literary texts (such as rhetorical figures and syntactical patterns) that are employed to produce expressive or literary style. It is different form literary criticism. Literary criticism rests solely on subjective interpretation of texts, linguistic stylistics concentrates on the “linguistic frameworks operative in a text” (Ayeomoni 2003: 177). This gives critic a pattern to follow, what to look for in a text. Ayeomoni, N (2003) “Role of Stylistics in Literary Studies’

13 Linguistic Stylistics
Linguistic Stylistics acknowledges the fact that it is not enough to study just the language of the literary texts since there are two aspects of literature: the verbal and the artistic. In view of this linguistic stylistics has its major purpose which relates language use to artistic function. How language has been used to express the message.

14 Features of Linguistic Stylistics
“Stylistic analysis in linguistics refers to the identification of the patterns of usage in speech and writing” (Widdowson, Stylistics) linguistic features for in-depth stylistic analysis. 1. Phonological level: (Sounds) Phonology studies the combination of sounds into organized units of speech. Though phonology is considered to be the superficial level of language, there are some aspects of it such as tone which contribute to the meaning of an utterance.

15 Phonological Level : Example
Their stanzas of stifling scandals Cause the masses to curse (Dasylva: “Songs of Odamolougbe” Alliteration, deliberate selection of sounds, repetition, Meaning: sinister, evil, corruption of Nigerian politicians

16 2.Graphological Level Graphology means the arrangement of words, the appearance of the text on a page. E.g. use of capitalization, or avoiding it, overemphasis on punctuation Emily Dickenson : Use of punctuation—Dashes e e cummings : ignores capitalization

17 Example: Graphological Level
On the wrinkled face of the hills i see my shortening shadow as my sun creeps towards the west hills gently, gently, gently like afternoon’s flame l o w e r i n g To ash in the evening Example: Graphological Level Ushi’s “Hill Song”

18 3. Lexical level Lexis is the total number of word forms
Words may be repeated Synonyms or similar words may be used Hyponymy, anaphora,

19 Example: Lexical Level
I looked upon the rotting sea And there the dead men lay I looked upon the rotting deck And there the dead men lay (Coleridge, “Rime of the Ancient Mariner”)

20 4. Syntactic Level It is concerned with the arrangement of the words in a sentence. It also attempts to describe how these elements function in the sentence. E. g. “Home he went” “home” occurs in the beginning of the sentence to foreground it. “Something there is that doesn’t love a wall” (Robert Frost, “Mending Wall”

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