2 Communicative Language Ability Communicative language ability includes the competence of language and the capacity for implementing this competence.
3 Language Proficiency and Communicative Competence Early Models (Lado): distinguish skills (reading, speaking) from components of knowledge (grammar, vocabulary)Later ModelsHalliday (1976): language functionsDijk (1971): delineation of the relationship between text and contestHymes (1972): socialcultural factors in the speech situationRecognition of the dynamic interaction between the context and the discourse
4 Framework of Communicative Language Ability Three components:Language competence: specific knowledge of components used in communicationStrategic competence: mental capacity for implementing the components of language competencePsychophysiological mechanisms: neurological and psychological process in the actual execution of language as a physical phenomenon.
6 Framework of Communicative Language Ability Attempts to prove the validity of the components have not been successful.Allen (1983) tried to measure grammatical competence (morphology and syntax) , discourse competence (cohesion and coherence) and sociolingistic competence (sensitivity to register), failed to support the factorial distinctness of these particular components.
7 Framework of Communicative Language Ability Bachman (1982): grammatical and pragmatical competence are closely associated with each other, while sociolinistic competence are distinct.
10 Language Competence Pragmatic Competence Illocutionary competence ideational / manipulative / heuristic / imaginativeSociolinguistic competencesensitivity to dialect / register / naturalness / cultural references
11 Language Competence Grammatical Competence Knowledge of vocabulary, morphology, syntax, phonology and graphologyThese competences govern the choice of words to express specific significations, their forms, their arrangement in utterances to express propositions, and their physical realizations.
12 Textual CompetenceKnowledge of the conventions for joining utterances together to form a textConvention (Halliday): semantic relationships such as references, substitution, ellipsis, conjunction, and lexical cohesionConvention (Grice): given and new informationConventions Of rhetorical organization: narration, description, comparison, classification, process analysis.Conventions of conversational language: establishing, maintaining, terminating conversations, attention getting, topic nomination, topic development and conversation maintenance.
13 Pragmatic CompetenceOrganizational competence: the relationships among signs and their referents.Pragmatic competence: the relationships between the language users and the context of communication, utterance and the acts or functions that speakers intend to perform through these utterances.Van Dijk’s aspects of pragmatics
14 Pragmatic CompetenceThe examination of the pragmatic conditions that whether or not a given utterance is acceptable to other users of the language as an act, or the performance of an intended functionThe characterization of the conditions that determine which utterances are successful in which situations.
15 Language Functions of Illocutionary Competence Ideational function: we express meaning in terms of our experience of the real world.Manipulative function: the primary purpose is to affect the world around us.Heuristic function: extend our knowledge of the world around us.Imaginative function: create or extend our own environment for humorous or esthetic purposes, where the value derives from the way in which the language itself is used.
16 Sociolinguistic Competence Appropriateness of these functions and their varieties in language use contextSensitivity to differences in dialect or varietySensitivity to differences in registerSensitivity to naturalnessAbility to interpret cultural references and figures of speech
17 Strategic CompetenceInteractional definition (Tarone: 1981): the mutual attempt by two interlocutors to agree on a meaning in situations where the requisite meaning structures do not seem to be shared. Problem: some communicative language use involves only one individual.Canale and Swain (1980): the definition of strategic competence includes both the compensatory characteristic and enhancement characteristic.
18 Psycholinguistic Description of Strategies Faerch and Kasper (1983): speech production includes a planning phase and an execution phase.Planning phrase: communicative goals and planning process
19 Psycholinguistic Description of Strategies Communicative goals: an actional element associated with speech acts, an modal element associated with the role relationship and a prepositional element associated with the content of the communicative event.Planning process: interaction of three components—the communicative goal, the communicative resources and the assessment of the communicative situation.Execution phase: neurological and physiological processes of implementation of the plan.
21 Assessment Component Identify the information Determine what language competencies are at our disposalAscertain the abilities and knowledge that are shared by our interlocutorsFollowing the communication attempt, evaluate the extent to which the communicative goal has been achieved.
22 Planning ComponentThe planning component retrieves relevant items from language competence and formulates a plan whose realization is expected to achieve the communicative goal.
23 Execution ComponentThe execution component draws on the relevant psychophysiciological mechanisms to implement the plan in the modality and channel appropriate to the communicative goal and the context.