Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Amino Acids from Phosphoenol Pyruvate 1Dr. Nikhat Siddiqi.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Amino Acids from Phosphoenol Pyruvate 1Dr. Nikhat Siddiqi."— Presentation transcript:

1 Amino Acids from Phosphoenol Pyruvate 1Dr. Nikhat Siddiqi

2 Aromatic rings are not readily available in the environment, even though the benzene ring is very stable. The branched pathway to tryptophan, phenylalanine, and tyrosine, occurring in bacteria, fungi, and plants, is the main biological route of aromatic ring formation. It proceeds through ring closure of an aliphatic precursor followed by stepwise addition of double bonds. 2Dr. Nikhat Siddiqi

3 The first four steps produce shikimate, a seven- carbon molecule derived from erythrose 4- phosphate and phosphoenolpyruvate. Shikimate is converted to chorismate in three steps that include the addition of three more carbons from another molecule of phosphoenolpyruvate. Chorismate is the first branch point of the pathway, with one branch leading to tryptophan, the other to phenylalanine and tyrosine. 3Dr. Nikhat Siddiqi

4 Biosynthesis of chorismate, an intermediate in the synthesis of aromatic amino acids in bacteria and plants 4Dr. Nikhat Siddiqi

5 Tryptophan In the tryptophan branch, chorismate is converted to anthranilate in a reaction in which glutamine donates the nitrogen that will become part of the indole ring. Anthranilate then condenses with PRPP. The indole ring of tryptophan is derived from the ring carbons and amino group of anthranilate plus two carbons derived from PRPP. The final reaction in the sequence is catalyzed by tryptophan synthase. 5Dr. Nikhat Siddiqi

6 Biosynthesis of tryptophan from chorismate in bacteria and plants 6Dr. Nikhat Siddiqi

7 Phenylalanine and Tyrosine In plants and bacteria, phenylalanine and tyrosine are synthesized from chorismate in pathways much less complex than the tryptophan pathway. The common intermediate is prephenate. The final step in both cases is transamination with glutamate. 7Dr. Nikhat Siddiqi

8 Biosynthesis of phenylalanine and tyrosine from chorismate in bacteria and plants 8Dr. Nikhat Siddiqi

9 Animals can produce tyrosine directly from phenylalaninethrough hydroxylation at C-4 of the phenyl group by phenylalanine hydroxylase; this enzyme also participates in the degradation of phenylalanine. Tyrosine is considered a conditionally essential amino acid, or as nonessential in so far as it can be synthesized from the essential amino acid phenylalanine. 9Dr. Nikhat Siddiqi

10 10Dr. Nikhat Siddiqi

Download ppt "Amino Acids from Phosphoenol Pyruvate 1Dr. Nikhat Siddiqi."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google