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Table 25-2Sphingolipid Storage Diseases. Page 979.

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Presentation on theme: "Table 25-2Sphingolipid Storage Diseases. Page 979."— Presentation transcript:

1 Table 25-2Sphingolipid Storage Diseases. Page 979

2 Figure The breakdown of sphingolipids by lysosomal enzymes. Page 978

3 Figure 25-90Model for G M2 -activator protein–stimulated hydrolysis of ganglioside G M2 by hexosaminidase A. Page 978

4 Figure 25-91Cytoplasmic membranous body in a neuron affected by Tay–Sachs disease. Page 979

5 Chapter 27, Nitrogen Metabolism

6 Figure 26-1 Forms of pyridoxal-5’-phosphate. (a) Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) and (b) Pyridoxal-5’-phosphate (PLP) (c) Pyridoxamine-5’-phosphate (PMP) and (d) The Schiff base that forms between PLP and an enzyme  -amino group.. Page 986

7 Page 987 Figure 26-2The mechanism of PLP- dependent enzyme-catalyzed transamination.

8 Figure 26-3The glucose– alanine cycle. Page 988

9 Figure 26-4 The oxidative deamination of glutamate by glutamate DH.

10 Page 992 Figure 26-7 The urea cycle.

11 Figure 26-8The mechanism of action of CPS I. Page 993

12 Figure 26-9 X-Ray structure of E. coli carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPS). Page 993

13 Figure 26-10The mechanism of action of argininosuccinate synthetase. Page 994

14 Figure Degradatio n of amino acids to one of seven common metabolic intermediates. Page 995

15 Figure The pathways converting alanine, cysteine, glycine, serine, and threonine to pyruvate. Page 996

16 Figure The pathway of phenylalanine degradation. Page 1009

17 Figure The pathway of phenylalanine degradation. Page 1009

18 Figure The pathway of phenylalanine degradation. Page 1009

19 Figure The pteridine ring, the nucleus of biopterin and folate. Page 1009

20 Page 1010 Figure Formation, utilization, and regeneration of 5,6,7,8- tetrahydrobiopterin (BH 4 ) in the phenylalanine hydroxylase reaction.

21 Page 1012 Figure 26-30Proposed mechanism of the NIH shift in the phenylalanine hydroxylase reaction.

22 Page 1013 Figure The NIH shift in the p-hydroxy- phenyl- pyruvate dioxygenase reaction. Homogentisate

23 Page 1013 Figure Structure of heme.

24 Figure 26-47Tetrahydrofolate (THF). Page 1028

25 Figure 26-48The two-stage reduction of folate to THF. Page 1028

26 Table 26-1Oxidation Levels of C 1 Groups Carried by THF. Page 1028

27 Page 1029 Figure Interconversion of the C 1 units carried by THF.

28 Figure 26-50The biosynthetic fates of the C 1 units in the THF pool. Page 1029

29 Page 1031 Figure The sequence of reactions catalyzed by glutamate synthase.

30 Table 26-2Essential and Nonessential Amino Acids in Humans. Page 1030 We can’t make these! We can make these!

31 Page 1033 Figure The syntheses of alanine, aspartate, glutamate, asparagine, and glutamine.

32 Figure 26-55aX-Ray structure of S. typhimurium glutamine synthetase. (a) View down the 6-fold axis of symmetry showing only the six subunits of the upper ring in alternating blue and green. Page 1034

33 Page 1035 Figure The regulation of bacterial glutamine synthetase.

34 Figure 26-57The biosynthesis of the “glutamate family” of amino acids: arginine, ornithine, and proline. Page 1036

35 Figure 26-58The conversion of 3- phosphoglycerate to serine. Page 1037

36 Figure 26-66Photograph showing the root nodules of the legume bird’s foot trefoil. Page 1046

37 Figure 26-67X-Ray structure of the A. vinelandii nitrogenase in complex with ADP · AlF 4 . Page 1046

38 Figure 26-69The flow of electrons in the nitrogenase- catalyzed reduction of N 2. Page 1048

39 Figure 26-59aCysteine biosynthesis. (a) The synthesis of cysteine from serine in plants and microorganisms. Page 1038

40 Figure 26-59bCysteine biosynthesis. (b) The 8-electron reduction of sulfate to sulfide in E. coli. Page 1038

41 Figure 26-60The biosynthesis of the “aspartate family” of amino acids: lysine, methionine, and threonine. Page 1039

42 Table 26-3Differential Control of Aspartokinase Isoenzymes in E. Coli. Page 1041

43 Figure 26-61The biosynthesis of the “pyruvate family” of amino acids: isoleucine, leucine, and valine. Page 1040

44 Figure 26-62The biosynthesis of chorismate, the aromatic amino acid precursor. Page 1042

45 Figure 26-63The biosynthesis of phenylalanine, tryptophan, and tyrosine from chorismate. Page 1043

46 Figure 26-64A ribbon diagram of the bifunctional enzyme tryptophan synthase from S. typhimurium Page 1044

47 Figure 26-65The biosynthesis of histidine. Page 1045

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