SSE – 110 Introduction to Social Welfare and Social Work Chapter 13 Sexism & Achieving Equality.
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SSE – 110 Introduction to Social Welfare and Social Work Chapter 13 Sexism & Achieving Equality
History of Sex Roles and Sexism In almost every society, women have had a lower status than men. Double standards. God in almost all religions is viewed male. See exhibit 13.1 “The Ideal Wife According to Buddhism”. Prior to the Industrial Revolution most societies had ascribed roles for males and females. As the traditional roles for women began to change, some females begin to pursue activities (for example, outside employment).
History of Sex Roles and Sexism In 1848 two feminists (Susan B. Anthony & Elizabeth Stanton) organized the first women’s right caucus. The 19 th amendment took over 70 years to pass – giving women the right to vote (1920). Some modern birth control methods became available in the early 1900’s. During World War II, a large number of women were employed outside the home for the first time. The 1960’s saw a resurgence of interest in sex role inequality. In 1955 research raised questions about the biological determination of sex roles (see pages 426 - 427).
History of Sex Roles and Sexism Socialization patterns of boys and girls. NOW – National Organization for Women (1996). The 1964 Civil Rights Act to end racial discrimination also prohibited discrimination on the basis of gender. In 1972 the Equal Rights Amendment received Congress’ approval but never got the 38 states needed to ratify it. In 1982 time ran out on what would have been the 27 th Amendment to the Constitution.
History of Sex Roles and Sexism A variety of statues have been passé to prevent sex discrimination. 1. The Federal Equal Pay Act of 1963. 2. Civil Rights Act of 1964. 3. Order 11246 – as amended by Executive Order 11375 On October 13, 1967, forbids sex discrimination by federal suppliers and contractors and provides for enforcement. 4. The Equal Credit Act of 1974, bars discrimination on the basis of marital status or gender in credit transactions.
History of Sex Roles and Sexism Despite the laws sex discrimination still exists. See pages 426 – 427 (second column).
Sexual Harassment Sexual harassment – entails repeated and unwanted sexual advances. Types of sexual harassment include 1. verbal, 2. nonverbal, 3. physical (see exhibit 13.3). Sexual harassment almost always involves elements of unequal power and coercion. In June 1998, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that an employer could be held liable when a supervisor sexually harassed a worker, even if the employee’s job is not harmed.
Traditional Sex – Role Expectations Sex roles are learned patterns of behavior that are expected of the sexes in a given society. Traditional sex roles for females (see pages 428 – 429). Traditional sex roles for males (see pages 429). See exhibit 13.4 on page 426. Is There a Biological Basis for Sexism? Most research today support the notion that sex- role differences are due to socialization patterns. See page 427– the work / findings of Dr. Margaret Mead.
Sex Role Socialization Blue for boys and pink for girls. Little boys are given trucks and girls are given dolls. See page 453 – 100 studies done by the American Association of University Women. The mass media play a large part in sex-role socialization (ads).
Consequences of Sexism Sexism is prejudice or discrimination against women. Although females are a majority in our society they are considered a minority group because they are victims of discrimination. 1. Effects on occupation and income: Women tend to be concentrated in lower paying jobs. Women’s pay is about three-fourths that of males. Women hold less than 10% of the nations elected positions. Women hold only 2% of top management positions. See table 13.3 – page 431.
Consequences of Sexism 2. Effects on human interaction: Females have more social restrictions (vs. boys). Pressure to have the Miss America look. Double standards. Male seek to be dominant in male / female relationships. Women experience more depression. Women have more dissatisfaction with marriage. Women may avoid success due to feeling less feminine. Effects on Human Interactions – see pages 432 - 434.
Recent Developments and a Look Toward the Future A sex role revolution is occurring in our society. Women are more involved in sports. Women are pursuing all types of professions. A men’s movement is slowly becoming more prominent. Flexible role socialization. See 13.7 – Strategies for Achieving Sexual Equality – page 436. President Obama’s Proposals to Advance the Status of Women – p.435.
Sexism and Social Work Male social workers can earn more money than female social workers. Males hold more administrative positions. NASW’s response – The Feminist perspective on therapy – Model for treating female clients from a feminist perspective – see pages 438 - 442.
Future Directions NOW Seek help for single parent families. Equal pay for equal work. Encourage female candidates for public office.