Presentation on theme: "Gender Inequalities What is meant by the term the ‘glass ceiling’. Gender inequalities in earnings and in the gender distribution of ‘top jobs’. How does."— Presentation transcript:
Gender Inequalities What is meant by the term the ‘glass ceiling’. Gender inequalities in earnings and in the gender distribution of ‘top jobs’. How does the ‘glass ceiling’ prevent women from achieving their potential in employment?
The ‘Glass Ceiling’ The ‘glass ceiling’ is the phrase used to describe the invisible barrier that women face when seeking promotion to top jobs. Why does the glass ceiling exist? There is still some evidence of discrimination (sexism) against women in employment although, overall, the situation is improving. Women’s role in having and raising children. Many companies do not offer enough in the way of childcare or flexible working conditions. In 2010, there was a ‘pay gap’ between men and women. For full-time workers, women earn 12% less than men and for part-time workers the figure is 35%.
‘Why Do Women Earn Less than Men?’ Women tend to earn less than men because women: More often take lower paid jobs (the 5 Cs, They are Catering, Caring, Clerical, Cashiering and Cleaning). Women are more likely to take these jobs if they are lone parents. Illegally receive lower pay for same work. Traditional role as mother / carer holds them back in employment and or promotion. More likely to work part-time.
The 5Cs CateringCashiering CleaningCaring Clerical 75% of catering industry are female.
The Sex and Power Report 2008 – ‘The Missing Women’ If women hope to shatter the ‘glass ceiling’ and achieve equal representation they would need to find over 5,600 women ‘missing’ from more than 31,000 top positions of power in Britain today. These include: 2,921 missing from among 18,781 public appointments. 436 missing from among the 1,119 directorships in FTSE 100 companies. 225 missing from among the 745 members of the House of Lords. 214 missing from among the 916 Civil Service top managers. 198 missing from among the 646 Members of Parliament. 160 missing from among the 448 council leaders in local government. 92 missing from among the 243 senior police officers. 80 missing from among the 198 senior judges. Note: Missing women equal half the total number of posts minus the number of posts held by women.
BBC News - Women hold fewer than third of top jobs - BBC researchBBC News - Women hold fewer than third of top jobs - BBC research Women occupy on average 30.9% of the most senior positions across 11 key sectors analysed by the BBC, including business, politics and policing. The armed forces and judiciary have the fewest women in top posts - 1.3% and 13.2% respectively - while secondary education has the most (36.7%).
Activities Heading: ‘Gender Inequalities 1.What is the ‘glass ceiling’? 2.Explain two reasons why the ‘glass ceiling’ exists. 3. Explain two reasons why women earn less than men. 4. Women are concentrated in the 5Cs areas of employment. What are the 5Cs? 5. Using the information in the ‘Sex and Power Report’, what evidence is there to show women are failing to achieve equality in the workplace. Reading: “Modern UK Social Issues” pages 30-34.