1 Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Fundamentals for Program Managers.
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1 Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Fundamentals for Program Managers
2 What is GIS? A technology of hardware, software, data, people, and processes A technology that connects intelligence to a place on the earth The objective: to improve overall decision making
3 GIS is an extremely effective tool for: Decision Making Identifying trends and relationships Visualizing tabular data via maps Synthesizing Data Solving Problems Reports, Presentations, Trainings Geographic Information Systems
4 How Can GIS Help My Customer? Rapid Eligibility Determination Data Supported Decisions Strategic Planning Solid Demographic Analysis
5 How Can GIS Help My Staff? Fast, Efficient Workload Accurate, Timely Process Data Visualization Reliable, Automated Calculation Accurate, Efficient Analysis
6 Better solutions to business requirements Maximize benefits of taxpayer money Forecast outcomes Measure targeted performance Present powerful ideas quickly How can GIS help Government in General?
7 GIS Formal Definition GIS is "an automated system for the capture, storage, retrieval, analysis, and display of spatial data." (Clarke 1995)
8 Hardware, software, applications, networks, telecommunications Data People Methods Standards Metadata Business goals, needs, logic, and processes, governance GIS Components
9 What are Maps? Discovery imagination hypothesis description Location size shape distance direction route Analysis proximity relationship projection forecast 12th Century map of the Mediterranean
10 Two main types of GIS data Raster Data Aerial imagerly (not geogreference) Orthophotography Satellite Imagery Topographic Vector Data Points Lilnes Polygons Point Line Polygon
11 GIS Integrates All the Parts Administrative boundaries Transportation Water Areas and Hydrologic Units Topography and Soils Program Data Imagery Demographics
12 Importance of Accuracy Look at the yellow arrow to see the difference in alignment.
13 Binding Spatial and Tabular Data Spatial Component: Polygons, Lines, or Points Tabular Component: A Database with Records and Fields Spatial Component related to many records Data Modeling Data Standards Cardinality Normalization Optimizing Queries Spatial and tabular webservices Metadata
14 Examples Maps Mapping data standards Improvements in map accuracy Digital collection of map data Analytical maps Applications Data drive interactive maps Applications for decision support Applications to collect data and manage business process
15 Census offers many avenues to data American Fact Finder TIGER/Line®, MAF/TIGER® Modernization http://www.census.gov/geo/www/ http://www.census.gov/geo/www/tiger/future/future_tl.html
21 Trends Standards Service Oriented Architecture Interoperability Shared components or services Data Modeling Metadata
22 Beyond “Maps” Integration of GPS and GIS Mobile Data Collection and Mapping USDA APHIS: Asian Longhorn Beetle treatment RD: Location correction of housing loan properties
23 Common Access to Data 3D features of Google Earth are suddenly commonplace to non-GIS users. Seen here is USDA and DC Southwest
24 Sensors and Location Sensor Web Wireless devices linking sensors, GPS, GIS, the Internet, databases and more. “Sensor Web is a special type of web- centric information system for collecting, modeling, storing, retrieving, sharing, manipulating, analyzing, and visualizing information of sensors, sensor observations, and associated phenomena. This new earth observation information system opens up a new avenue to fast assimilation of data from various sensors (both in situ and remote) and to accurate analysis and informed decision makings.” Sensor Web @ GeoICT Interoperable devices Near real time data Wireless networks
25 Beyond “IT” Business Intelligence Enterprise Architecture Target Architectures Project Management Portfolio Management Governance Geospatial Line of Business Federal Geographic Data Committee Agency coordination groups Agency Capital Planning