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WFM 6202: Remote Sensing and GIS in Water Management

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1 WFM 6202: Remote Sensing and GIS in Water Management
WFM 6202: Remote Sensing and GIS in Water Management © Dr. Akm Saiful Islam WFM 6202: Remote Sensing and GIS in Water Management [Part-B: Geographic Information System (GIS)] Lecture-1: Introduction to GIS Akm Saiful Islam Institute of Water and Flood Management (IWFM) Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET) December, 2006

2 Introduction to GIS What is GIS ?
An Information System that is used to input, store , retrieve, manipulate, analyze and output geographically referenced data or geospatial data, in order to support decision making for planning and management of land use, natural resources, environment, transportation, urban facilities, and other administrative records

3 Components of GIS Key components of GIS are:
Computer system, geospatial data, and users Sources of geospatial data are: Digitized maps, aerial photographs, satellite images, statistical tables, and other related documents Computer System Geospatial Data Users Figure: Key components of GIS


5 Classification of Geospatial Data
Graphical data (called geometric data) Attributes (called thematic data) Real World Data Model Spatial Objects Points Lines Areas Vector Raster Form Pixels in Raster Attributes in Tables Figure: Concept of Geospatial Data


7 Why GIS is needed ? Common problems of handing geospatial information:
Geospatial data are poorly maintained. Maps and statistics are out of date. Data and information are inaccurate. There is no data retrieval service. There is no data sharing.

8 Benefits once GIS is implemented
Geospatial data are better maintained in a standard format. Revision and updating are easier. Geospatial data and information are easier to search, analysis and represent. More value added product. Geospatial data can be shared and exchanged freely. Productivity of the staff improved and more efficient. Time and money are saved. Better decision can be made.

9 GIS Versus Manual Works
Maps GIS Manual works Storage Standardized and integrated Different scales on different standard Retrieval Digital Database Paper Maps, Census, Tables Updating Search by Computer Manual Check Overlay Very Fast Expensive & Time consuming Spatial Analysis Easy Complicated Display Cheap & Fast Expensive

10 Comparison of Geospatial Information Management

11 Basic Functions of GIS Functions Sub-functions Data Acquisition
and prepossessing Digitizing, Editing , Topology Building, Projection Transformation, Format Conversion etc. Database Management and Retrieval Data Archival, Hierarchical Modeling , Network Modeling, Relational Modeling, Attribute Query, Object-oriented Database etc. Spatial Measurement and Analysis Measurement operations, Buffering, Overlay operations, connectivity Operations etc. Graphic output and Visualization Scale Transformation, Generalization, Topological Map, Statistical Map etc.

12 Computer System for GIS
Hardware System Central Processing Unit (CPU) Memory (RAM) > 64 MB I/O Device Plotters, printers, mouse, digitizers, scanners, digital camera Software System Operating System DOS, Windows Compiler C++, Pascal, Fortran, BASIC Application Programs ARC/INFO, MGE, Geo/SQL, GFIS, IDRISI*, GRASS* * public domain software

13 GIS as Multidisciplinary Science
Statistics Operations Research Computer Science Mathematics Civil Engineering Urban Planning Geography Cartography Remote Sensing Photogrammetry Surveying Geodesy

14 Relations of Traditional Disciplines with GIS

15 Area of GIS Applications
Facilities Management Locating underground pipes & cables, planning facility maintenance, telecommunication network services Environmental and Natural Resources Management Environmental impact analysis, disaster management and mitigation Street Network Locating houses and streets, car navigation, transportation planning Planning and Engineering Urban planning, regional planning, development of public facilities Land Information Taxation, zoning of land use, land acquisition

16 GIS Information Infrastructure
Population Land Use Cadastre etc. Social Infrastructure Police and Fire Cable and Pipe Transportations GIS Information Infrastructure Environmental Infrastructure Urban Infrastructure Natural Resources Pollution Disaster etc. Economic Infrastructure Educational Infrastructure Marketing Banking Car Navigations etc. Natural Resources Pollution Disaster etc.

17 GIS for decision support
Human Dimensions Physical Dimensions Population Health & Wealth Technology Politics Economic Driving Forces Development Urbanization Industrialization Construction Energy Human Impacts Human Activities Public Awareness Public Conciseness Policy Making Planning Management Land Use Change Change of Life Style Land Degradation Pollution Climate Change Decision Making Environmental Change Database Analysis and Assessment by GIS Monitoring by Remote Sensing

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