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WFM 6202: Remote Sensing and GIS in Water Management © Dr. Akm Saiful IslamDr. Akm Saiful Islam WFM 6202: Remote Sensing and GIS in Water Management Akm.

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Presentation on theme: "WFM 6202: Remote Sensing and GIS in Water Management © Dr. Akm Saiful IslamDr. Akm Saiful Islam WFM 6202: Remote Sensing and GIS in Water Management Akm."— Presentation transcript:

1 WFM 6202: Remote Sensing and GIS in Water Management © Dr. Akm Saiful IslamDr. Akm Saiful Islam WFM 6202: Remote Sensing and GIS in Water Management Akm Saiful Islam [Part-B: Geographic Information System (GIS)] Lecture-1: Introduction to GIS December, 2006 Institute of Water and Flood Management (IWFM) Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET) WFM 6202: Remote Sensing and GIS in Water Management © Dr. Akm Saiful IslamDr. Akm Saiful Islam

2 WFM 6202: Remote Sensing and GIS in Water Management © Dr. Akm Saiful IslamDr. Akm Saiful Islam Introduction to GIS What is GIS ? An Information System that is used to input, store, retrieve, manipulate, analyze and output geographically referenced data or geospatial data, in order to support decision making for planning and management of land use, natural resources, environment, transportation, urban facilities, and other administrative records

3 WFM 6202: Remote Sensing and GIS in Water Management © Dr. Akm Saiful IslamDr. Akm Saiful Islam Components of GIS Key components of GIS are: –Computer system, geospatial data, and users Sources of geospatial data are: –Digitized maps, aerial photographs, satellite images, statistical tables, and other related documents Computer System Geospatial Data Users Figure: Key components of GIS

4 WFM 6202: Remote Sensing and GIS in Water Management © Dr. Akm Saiful IslamDr. Akm Saiful Islam

5 WFM 6202: Remote Sensing and GIS in Water Management © Dr. Akm Saiful IslamDr. Akm Saiful Islam Classification of Geospatial Data Graphical data (called geometric data) Attributes (called thematic data) Figure: Concept of Geospatial Data Real World VectorVector Raster Form Spatial Objects Attributes in Tables Pixels in Raster Points Lines Areas Data Model

6 WFM 6202: Remote Sensing and GIS in Water Management © Dr. Akm Saiful IslamDr. Akm Saiful Islam

7 WFM 6202: Remote Sensing and GIS in Water Management © Dr. Akm Saiful IslamDr. Akm Saiful Islam Why GIS is needed ? Common problems of handing geospatial information: Geospatial data are poorly maintained. Maps and statistics are out of date. Data and information are inaccurate. There is no data retrieval service. There is no data sharing.

8 WFM 6202: Remote Sensing and GIS in Water Management © Dr. Akm Saiful IslamDr. Akm Saiful Islam Benefits once GIS is implemented Geospatial data are better maintained in a standard format. Revision and updating are easier. Geospatial data and information are easier to search, analysis and represent. More value added product. Geospatial data can be shared and exchanged freely. Productivity of the staff improved and more efficient. Time and money are saved. Better decision can be made.

9 WFM 6202: Remote Sensing and GIS in Water Management © Dr. Akm Saiful IslamDr. Akm Saiful Islam GIS Versus Manual Works MapsGISManual works StorageStandardized and integrated Different scales on different standard RetrievalDigital DatabasePaper Maps, Census, Tables UpdatingSearch by Computer Manual Check OverlayVery FastExpensive & Time consuming Spatial Analysis EasyComplicated DisplayCheap & FastExpensive

10 WFM 6202: Remote Sensing and GIS in Water Management © Dr. Akm Saiful IslamDr. Akm Saiful Islam Comparison of Geospatial Information Management

11 WFM 6202: Remote Sensing and GIS in Water Management © Dr. Akm Saiful IslamDr. Akm Saiful Islam Basic Functions of GIS FunctionsSub-functions Data Acquisition and prepossessing Digitizing, Editing, Topology Building, Projection Transformation, Format Conversion etc. Database Management and Retrieval Data Archival, Hierarchical Modeling, Network Modeling, Relational Modeling, Attribute Query, Object-oriented Database etc. Spatial Measurement and Analysis Measurement operations, Buffering, Overlay operations, connectivity Operations etc. Graphic output and Visualization Scale Transformation, Generalization, Topological Map, Statistical Map etc.

12 WFM 6202: Remote Sensing and GIS in Water Management © Dr. Akm Saiful IslamDr. Akm Saiful Islam Computer System for GIS Hardware System –Central Processing Unit (CPU) –Memory (RAM) > 64 MB –I/O Device Plotters, printers, mouse, digitizers, scanners, digital camera Software System –Operating System DOS, Windows –Compiler C++, Pascal, Fortran, BASIC –Application Programs ARC/INFO, MGE, Geo/SQL, GFIS, IDRISI*, GRASS* –* public domain software

13 WFM 6202: Remote Sensing and GIS in Water Management © Dr. Akm Saiful IslamDr. Akm Saiful Islam GIS as Multidisciplinary Science Geography Cartography Remote Sensing Photogrammetry Surveying Geodesy Statistics Operations Research Computer Science Mathematics Civil Engineering Urban Planning

14 WFM 6202: Remote Sensing and GIS in Water Management © Dr. Akm Saiful IslamDr. Akm Saiful Islam Relations of Traditional Disciplines with GIS

15 WFM 6202: Remote Sensing and GIS in Water Management © Dr. Akm Saiful IslamDr. Akm Saiful Islam Area of GIS Applications AreaGIS Applications Facilities Management Locating underground pipes & cables, planning facility maintenance, telecommunication network services Environmental and Natural Resources Management Environmental impact analysis, disaster management and mitigation Street NetworkLocating houses and streets, car navigation, transportation planning Planning and Engineering Urban planning, regional planning, development of public facilities Land InformationTaxation, zoning of land use, land acquisition

16 WFM 6202: Remote Sensing and GIS in Water Management © Dr. Akm Saiful IslamDr. Akm Saiful Islam GIS Information Infrastructure Social Infrastructure Urban Infrastructure GIS Information Infrastructure Environmental Infrastructure Economic Infrastructure Educational Infrastructure Population Land Use Cadastre etc. Natural Resources Pollution Disaster etc. Natural Resources Pollution Disaster etc. Marketing Banking Car Navigations etc. Police and Fire Cable and Pipe Transportations

17 WFM 6202: Remote Sensing and GIS in Water Management © Dr. Akm Saiful IslamDr. Akm Saiful Islam GIS for decision support Human Dimensions Population Health & Wealth Technology Politics Economic Population Health & Wealth Technology Politics Economic Physical Dimensions Development Urbanization Industrialization Construction Energy Development Urbanization Industrialization Construction Energy Policy Making Planning Management Policy Making Planning Management Land Use Change Change of Life Style Land Degradation Pollution Climate Change Land Use Change Change of Life Style Land Degradation Pollution Climate Change Analysis and Assessment by GIS Analysis and Assessment by GIS Monitoring by Remote Sensing Monitoring by Remote Sensing Decision Making Driving ForcesHuman Impacts Environmental Change Human Activities Database Public Awareness Public Conciseness


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