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19 th Advanced Summer School in Regional Science An introduction to GIS using ArcGIS.

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Presentation on theme: "19 th Advanced Summer School in Regional Science An introduction to GIS using ArcGIS."— Presentation transcript:

1 19 th Advanced Summer School in Regional Science An introduction to GIS using ArcGIS

2 Outline First Day –Introduction to GIS using ArcGIS –Training with ArcGIS –Overview and more advanced directions –Training with ArcGIS Second Day –GIS topics with ArcGIS: Raster and other data –Training with ArcGIS –Overview and advanced data manipulation –Training with ArcGIS

3 Early (1507) GIS Martin Waldseemüller Map

4 GIS Programs Is GIS a map? Is a map GIS? –Collect, organize and relate spatial and non-spatial data –Measure and calculate variables in a ‘spatially sensible’ fashion –Make inferences and test hypotheses about relationships that might have spatial structure, and about the spatial structure itself Map can be viewed as a limited GIS GIS is more than mapping – visual display of spatial information –Mapping does not necessarily permit measurement/calculation –Mapping rarely ventures into inference or hypothesis testing –Complete GIS implemented using computer programs –Combined graphics editing, database, statistical analysis This course is focused on use of ArcGIS There are many other programs worth exploring

5 There is a “free” way

6 Google Earth Particularly useful for data display

7 ArcGIS ArcGIS is a suite of programs for working with spatial data Three core “workhorse” programs –ArcCatalog –ArcMap –ArcToolbox Three useful extras –ArcReader –ArcScene –ArcGlobe ArcGIS itself comes in 3 levels: view, editor and info

8 ArcCatalog View folder contents Connect to and navigate drives/folders Launch other ArcGIS applications

9 ArcCatalog Preview GIS data Examine ‘Metadata’ Search and preview online data Load data layers into ArcMap

10 ArcMap The central workspace for analysis an display of geographic data Table of Contents Tools Map

11 ArcMap Layers –ArcMap and all advanced GIS programs adopt ‘layers’ for managing data display –Layers display can depend on scale –Layers can be switched on or off –Layers can be moved up or down –Layers can be of any data type

12 ArcToolbox Launched from ArcCatalog using red toolbox Provides data and file utilities –Conversion –Projection –Analysis

13 ArcToolbox For simple projects these tools are often not required For large projects with many layers using data from many sources, they can be very useful Essential for managing projections and coordinate systems Raster combinations, clipping Conversions

14 Working with spatial data Each component of ArcGIS is designed to facilitate the use and analysis of spatial data Structure of spatial data We have choice of which type to use Spatial Data Vector DataRaster Data

15 Data Types: Vector Vector data ideal for representation of discrete, discontinuous data –Location of a city or structure –Location of a roadway or river –Political boundaries These examples correspond to the three general types of vector data

16 Data Types: Vector Vector –Points –Lines –Polygons

17 Data Types: Raster Raster represents spatial data as square array of numbers –Each element of array associated with a pixel –Each pixel has a location – spatial structure –Value of array element represents data at that location Rasters are natural for representing certain types of data –Elevation –Slope –Temperature –Other continuous variables Rasters can be used for representing some discontinuous data as well –Transport costs –Land Use

18 Data Types: Raster Rasters provide direct representation of value, not shape Represent continuous variables or data over space Patterns of values can represent shape Land forms and other structures emerge via patterns

19 Data Files Vector data and raster data require different file formats In ArcGIS, vector data are mostly stored in two formats –Shapefiles (older format – wide compatibility) –GeoDatabase (newer format – more information) What is the structure of a “shapefile”?

20 Shapefiles A group of files having the same prefix but varying file extensions Required: –.shp - the file that stores the feature geometry. Required. –.shx - the file that stores the index of the feature geometry. Required. –.dbf - the dBASE file that stores the attribute information of features. Required.

21 Shapefiles A group of files having the same prefix but varying file extensions Optional: –.sbn and.sbx - the files that store the spatial index of the features. –.prj - the file that stores the coordinate system and projection information –.xml - metadata for using shapefiles on the Internet. –.fbn and.fbx – read-ony indexes –.ain and.aih - active field indexes

22 Shapefiles Viewed in Windows Explorer Viewed in ArcCatalog

23 Shapefiles Components of a shapefile are called “features” Each feature may have one or more “attributes” Feature attributes are recorded in dbf file Shapefiles can be created within ArcCatalog –Right click on folder, choose New..Shapefile Shapefiles do not store “topological” information –Polygons that must share boundaries –Line segments that must be connected –No automatic way to check if these have been disturbed or incorrectly entered

24 GeoDatabase GeoDatabase provides an extended format for vector data Microsoft Access mdb format 28 tables –GDB_AnnoSymbols to –GDB_ValidRules –More type checking –More checking of topology Conversion between formats is available in ArcToolbox

25 Structure of a GeoDatabase Standard information –Feature Data –Info about each field Additional information –Topological information –Data validation

26 Raster Files Files that include geographic location –ESRI Grid –Geo-TIFF –BIL Files that present raster data but lack location –jpg –TIFF –Many others

27 ArcCatalog Test Drive Preview Data View MetaData Create New Files Launch Toolbox Launch ArcMap Add Layers Connect to Internet –Feature Servers –Map Servers

28 ArcToolbox Test Drive Projection Conversion Indexing

29 ArcMap Basics Adding Map Layers Data Frame(s) Frame Properties and Layer Properties Features and Attributes

30 ArcMap Basics Handling Layers Symbology Transparency View at Map Scale

31 ArcMap Basics Selecting Features –Controlling selection layers –Creating new layer from selection Queries –Basic information –Attribute queries –Spatial queries Calculating New Attributes Exporting Data

32 ArcMap Basics Adding Data Frames Working with Layout View Scales, Titles and Legends

33 ArcMap Intermediate: Data Joining Data –One to one –One to many Relating Data Creating Point Shapefile from Data Editing Data –Creating –Merging –Modifying

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