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Electricity and Electronics Technology Education Dept. Bellwood-Antis Middle School Mr. Mackereth

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WHAT IS ELECTRICITY? ELECTRICITY is the FLOW of ELECTRONS through a current carrying CONDUCTOR or WIRE. ELECTRICITY CAN BE MEASURED AS….. AMPERAGE (AMPS)- The electron’s RATE OF FLOW VOLTAGE (VOLTS)- The PRESSURE of the electrons POWER (WATTS)-The measure of POWER OUTPUT RESISTANCE (OHMS)- The friction in the electric wire while electricity is trying to pass through.

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COMMOM ELECTRICAL TERMS: POTENTIAL ENERGY- Energy in position, or stored energy. At rest, ready to release energy KINETIC ENERGY- Energy in motion, or energy being consumed or used to do work. MATTER- Object(s) that occupy space (atom) MOLECULE- the smallest part of a compound. ATOM- The individual elements that make up compounds in our world. ALL MOLECULES ARE MADE FROM INDIVIDUAL ATOMS!

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WHAT ARE SOME OF THE DIFFERENT WAYS OUR SOCIETY USES ELECTRICITY? HOUSEHOLD USES MANUFACTURING COMMUNICATION RECREATION HEALTH & MEDICAL PUBLIC LIGHTING SAFETY & SECURITY PROFESSIONAL USES TEMPERATURE CONTROLS RESEARCH / LABORATORY

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COMMOM ELECTRICAL TERMS: PROTONS- A positively charged particle in an atom ELECTRONS- Negatively charged particle in an atom DIRECT CURRENT (DC)- A continuous electrical energy, usually from transformers and batteries DC electric power ALWAYS flows from positive to negative ALTERNATING CURRENT (AC)- Electricity in a wave form that pulses from + to – 60 times a second. Regular household/business electric power is AC AC electricity pulses back & forth b/w positive & negative

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COMMOM ELECTRICAL TERMS: CONDUCTOR- An object that WILL allow electric current to flow through itself. (PLASTIC, RUBBER, PVC) INSULATOR - An object that WILL NOT allow electric current to flow through itself. (WATER & METALS) ELECTRICITY QUIZ #1 IS TOMORROW! INCLUDES EVERYTHING FROM PAGE 1 OF NOTES. ALSO, KNOW SOCIETY’S USES OF ELECTRICITY! BE ABLE TO DESCRIBE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ELECTRICAL TERMS USING COMPLETE SENTENCES.

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TYPES OF CIRCUITS OPEN CIRCUIT- An electric pathway that is not connected, or has a break (short) in the path. ELECTRICITY WON’T FLOW IN AN OPEN CIRCUIT A light switch in the OFF position is an OPEN circuit CLOSED CIRCUIT- An COMPLETE electrical pathway ELECTRICITY WILL FLOW IN A CLOSED CIRCUIT A light switch in the ON position is a CLOSED circuit

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TYPES OF CIRCUITS SERIES CIRCUIT- A path with only ONE “HOT” WIRE. Devices in a series circuit are connected one after the other. Old Christmas lights are wired IN SERIES. PARALLEL CIRCUIT- A path containing TWO WIRES (one HOT & one NEUTRAL wire.) Each device is connected to BOTH WIRES. Homes are IN PARALLEL GROUNDED CIRCUIT- a safe circuit preventing shock Make sure you can identify the 18 different electrical symbols on your FLASH CARDS.

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ELECTRICITY QUIZ #2 INCLUDES EVERYTHING FROM PAGES 1 & 2 OF YOUR NOTES. ALSO KNOW THE FIVE DIFFERENT CIRCUITS! BE ABLE TO DEFINE ALL THE TERMS & BE ABLE TO IDENTIFY ALL 18 SYMBOLS THE QUIZ IS TOMORROW!

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CALCULATING ELECTRICAL VALUES Scientists discovered in the 19 th century that electricity follows the laws of physics & can be calculated using mathematical equations. KNOW THE FORMULAS BELOW: WATTS = VOLTS x AMPS (W = V x A) VOLTS = AMPS x RESISTANCE (V = A x R) If you know or are given any two of the four values, YOU CAN CALCULATE THE OTHERS!

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PRACTICE PROBLEMS PROBLEM #1 Volts = 120 Amps = 3 FIND WATTS & OHMS W = V x A W =120 X 3 W = 360 V = A x R 120 = 3 X R 3 3 R = 40 PROBLEM #2 Volts = 120 Watts = 60 FIND AMPS & OHMS W = V x A 60 =120 X A 120 120 A = 0.5 V = A x R 120 = 0.5 X R 0.5 0.5 R = 240

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PRACTICE PROBLEMS PROBLEM #3 Volts = 12Ohms = 24 FIND AMPS & WATTS V = A x R 12 = 24 X R 24 A= 0.5 W = V x A w = 12 X 0.5 W = 6 PROBLEM #4 Watts = 1200 Amps = 15 FIND VOLTS & OHMS W = V x A 1200 = V X 15 15 15 V= 80 V = A x R 80 = 15 X R 15 R = 5.33333333 (5.3)

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HOMEWORK PROBLEM #1 Volts = 240 Amps = 3 FIND WATTS & OHMS W = V x A W =240 X 3 W = 720 V = A x R 240 = 3 X R 3 3 R = 80 PROBLEM #2 Volts = 120 Watts = 180 FIND AMPS & OHMS W = V x A 180=120 X A 120 120 A = 1.5 V = A x R 120 = 1.5 X R 1.5 1.5 R = 280

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RESISTORS RESISTORS are man-made components that are designed to limit the flow of electricity through small circuit boards and other electronic devices. RESISTORS have a FOUR COLOR CODE that tells us the size (amount of resistance) in each resistor. COLOR BAND #1- The 1 st digit in the resistor size COLOR BAND #2- The 2 nd digit in the resistor size COLOR BAND #3- # of zeros added (multiplier) COLOR BAND #4- The TOLERANCE level allowed

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PRACTICE PROBLEM 1, a resistor with REDYELLOWBROWNSILVER 2 4 add 1 zeros 10% ANSWER: 240 Ohms with a tolerance of 10% HIGH TOLERANCE # of Ohms X 100 + T% 240 Ohms X 110% Answer: 264 Ohms LOW TOLERANCE # Ohms X 100 + T% Ohms X 110% Answer: 216 Ohms

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PRACTICE PROBLEM 2, a resistor with BROWNREDORANGEGOLD 1 2 add 3 zeros 5% ANSWER: 12,000 Ohms with a tolerance of 5% HIGH TOLERANCE # of Ohms X (100 + T %) 12,000 Ohms X 105% ANSWER: 12,600 Ohms LOW TOLERANCE # Ohms X (100 – T %) 12,000 Ohms X 95% Answer: 11,400 Ohms

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HOMEWORK #1 is a resistor with …. RED REDORANGESILVER 2 2 add 3 zeros 10% ANSWER: 22,000 Ohms with a tolerance of 10% HIGH TOLERANCE # Ohms X (100 + T %) 22,000 Ohms X 110% ANS: 24,200 Ohms LOW TOLERANCE # Ohms X (100 - T %) 22,000 Ohms X 90% ANS: 19,800 Ohms

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HOMEWORK #2 is a resistor with …. BROWNRED BROWN SILVER 1 2 add 1 zero 10% ANSWER: 120 Ohms with a tolerance of 10% HIGH TOLERANCE # Ohms X (100 + T %) 120 Ohms X 110% ANS: 132 Ohms LOW TOLERANCE # Ohms X (100 - T %) 120 Ohms X 90% ANS: 108 Ohms

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