A Few Safety Rules Think through each step before beginning an experiment Identify possible hazards and take appropriate measures to contain or minimize.
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1 A Few Safety RulesThink through each step before beginning an experimentIdentify possible hazards and take appropriate measures to contain or minimize hazards (read labels)If you don’t know what is going to happen and think there may be a potential for dangerStop!Get help before proceeding or modify procedure to minimize risk.When using hazardous chemicals use secondary containment and appropriate personal protection
2 Unattended Experiment Guidelines Prepare for power failure, _______ failure, or a leak__________ containment of hazardous chemicalsPrepare for flooded and ____ conditionsDo not let equipment such as power stirrers, hot plates, heating mantles, and water condensers run overnight without ________ provisions and the instructor's consentEverything well securedCheck unattended reactions periodicallyPost contact informationAccurate instructions and _______ for emergency personnelsoftwareSecondarydryfail‑safelabels
3 Routes of Chemical Exposure skinprotective clothingglovesingestiondon’t pipette by mouth!no food in the labwash before leaving the labinhalationdust and vapors (use fume hood when either are present)eyeseye protection against splashing and vaporsmention chronic vs. acute exposure
4 Material Safety Data Sheets: an information source Emergency informationchemical product and company identificationcompositionhazards identificationAppropriate response to hazardous situationsfirst aid measuresfire fighting measuresaccidental release measures
5 Material Safety Data Sheets: an information source Prevention of hazardous situationshandling and storageexposure controls and personal protectionphysical and chemical propertiesstability and reactivityMiscellaneoustoxicological informationecological informationdisposal considerationstransportation informationregulatory information
6 Material Safety Data Sheets: an example - Hydrochloric Acid You’ve been asked to mix up a solution of 1N HCl from concentrated hydrochloric acid. You would like to know of any hazards associated with this procedure.You remember the safety rule and you think through the steps of preparing the solution. You realize that you’ve never opened a container of concentrated HCl before. So you STOP! and get some help.
7 Hydrochloric Acid: Potential Health Effects DANGER! CORROSIVE. CAUSES EYE AND SKIN BURNS. CAUSES DIGESTIVE AND RESPIRATORY TRACT BURNS.Eye:May cause irreversible eye injury. Vapor or mist may cause irritation and severe burns. Contact with liquid is corrosive to the eyes and causes severe burns.Skin:May be absorbed through the skin in harmful amounts. Contact with liquid is corrosive and causes severe burns and ulceration.
8 Hydrochloric Acid: Potential Health Effects Ingestion:May cause circulatory system failure. Causes severe digestive tract burns with abdominal pain, vomiting, and possible death. May cause corrosion and permanent tissue destruction of the esophagus and digestive tract.Inhalation:Causes severe irritation of upper respiratory tract with coughing, burns, breathing difficulty, and possible coma. May cause pulmonary edema and severe respiratory disturbances.Chronic:Prolonged or repeated skin contact may cause dermatitis. Repeated exposure may cause erosion of teeth. May cause conjunctivitis and photosensitization.
9 Hydrochloric Acid danger! Physical State: Liquid Appearance: Clear, colorless to faintly yellow.Odor: Strong, pungent.pH: 1.1 (0.1N sol).Vapor Pressure: 160 mm HgVapor Density: (Air=1)Evaporation Rate: 2.0 (Butyl acetate=1)Viscosity: Not available.Boiling Point: 230_FFreezing/Melting Point: -101_FDecomposition Temperature: _FSolubility: 823g/L water at 32F.Specific Gravity/Density: 1.19 (Water=1)Molecular Formula: HClMolecular Weight: 36.46danger!
10 Hydrochloric Acid: My Solution to the solution Vapor pressure is significant and vapor is very corrosiveLiquid is very corrosiveSolution preparation should be done in a fume hood with gloves, protective clothing, and eye protection
11 MSDS: Hazards Identification NaClWarning! Causes eye irritation.HClPoison! Danger! Corrosive. Liquid and mist cause severe burns to all body tissue. May be fatal if swallowed or inhaled. Inhalation may cause lung damage.H2SO4Poison! Danger! Corrosive. Liquid and mist cause severe burns to all body tissue. May be fatal if swallowed or contacted with skin. Harmful if inhaled. Affects teeth. Water reactive. Cancer hazard. Strong inorganic acid mists containing sulfuric acid can cause cancer.Note absence of definitions for good and adequate ventilation!
12 MSDS: Summary A good source of information on safe handling May provide useful information on physical-chemical propertiesProvide first aid, fire fighting, and accidental release measuresCan be used to obtain concentrations of ingredients in proprietary solutions