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Human Resource Management 10th Edition Chapter 7 TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT © 2008 by Prentice Hall.

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Presentation on theme: "Human Resource Management 10th Edition Chapter 7 TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT © 2008 by Prentice Hall."— Presentation transcript:

1 Human Resource Management 10th Edition Chapter 7 TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
© 2008 by Prentice Hall

2 HRM in Action: Job Security versus Career Security
Job security - Implies security in one job, often with one company Career security - Requires developing marketable skills and expertise that help ensure employment within a range of careers Employability doctrine - Employees owe the company their commitment while employed and the company owes its workers the opportunity to learn new skills, but that is as far as the commitment goes © 2008 by Prentice Hall

3 Jobs Identified for Extinction
Stockbrokers, auto dealers, mail carriers, insurance and real estate agents, telephone repair people (wireless technology will take over), computer data entry personnel (voice recognition technology and scanning devices will eliminate the manual effort), and library researchers © 2008 by Prentice Hall

4 Training and Development (T&D)
Training and development (T&D) - Heart of a continuous effort designed to improve employee competency and organizational performance Training - Provides learners with the knowledge and skills needed for their present jobs © 2008 by Prentice Hall

5 Training and Development (T&D) (Cont.)
Development - Learning that goes beyond today’s job and has a more long-term focus Prepares employees to keep pace with organization as it changes and grows © 2008 by Prentice Hall

6 T&D Costs Over $50 billion every year on formal T&D programs
Average annual expenditure per employee for training rose to $955, but averaged $1,368 per employee in large organizations Purpose of T&D - Improved performance © 2008 by Prentice Hall

7 Learning Organization
Firms that recognize critical importance of continuous performance-related training and development and take appropriate action Workers rewarded for learning and provided enriched jobs, promotions, and compensation Organizations with reputation of being learning leader attract more and better qualified employees © 2008 by Prentice Hall

8 Factors Influencing T&D
Top management support Commitment from specialists and generalists Technological advances Organizational complexity Learning principles Other human resource functions © 2008 by Prentice Hall

9 Learning Generalizations
Learners progress in area of learning only as far as need to achieve purposes Best time to learn is when learning can be useful Try to space out training sessions © 2008 by Prentice Hall

10 Just-in-time Training
Training provided anytime, anywhere in the world when it is needed © 2008 by Prentice Hall

11 Determine Specific T&D Needs
Training and Development (T&D) Process External Environment Internal Environment Determine Specific T&D Needs Establish Specific T&D Objectives Select T&D Method (s) and Delivery System (s) Implement T&D Programs Evaluate T&D Programs © 2008 by Prentice Hall

12 Determining Specific Training and Development Needs
A systematic approach to addressing bona fide needs must be undertaken Organizational analysis Task analysis Person analysis © 2008 by Prentice Hall

13 Establishing Specific Training and Development Objectives
Desired end results Clear and concise objectives must be formulated © 2008 by Prentice Hall

14 Blended Training Firms utilize a number of methods for imparting knowledge and skills to workforce Usually more than one method, called blended training, is used to deliver the training © 2008 by Prentice Hall

15 T&D Methods Instructor-Led Case Study Behavior Modeling Role Playing
Business Games In-Basket Training On-the-Job Training Job Rotation Internships Apprenticeship Training © 2008 by Prentice Hall

16 Instructor-Led Continue to be effective for many types of employee training Convey great deal of information in relatively short time © 2008 by Prentice Hall

17 Trends & Innovations: Virtual Instructor-Led
Enables students to do practically anything they could do in traditional classroom Blackboard Learning System - Software application for delivering education online © 2008 by Prentice Hall

18 Case Study T&D method in which trainees study the information provided in the case and make decisions based on it Used in classroom with instructor who serves as facilitator © 2008 by Prentice Hall

19 Behavior Modeling T&D method which permits a person to learn by copying or replicating behaviors of others to show managers how to handle various situations Examples - Conducting performance appraisal reviews, correcting unacceptable performance, delegating work, improving safety habits, handling discrimination complaints, overcoming resistance to change, orienting new employees, and mediating individuals or groups in conflict © 2008 by Prentice Hall

20 Role Playing T&D method where participants are required to respond to specific problems they may encounter in their jobs by acting out real-world situations Used to teach such skills as: interviewing grievance handling performance appraisal reviews conference leadership team problem solving communication © 2008 by Prentice Hall

21 Business Games Permits participants to assume roles such as president, controller, or marketing vice president of two or more similar hypothetical organizations and compete against each other by manipulating selected factors in a particular business situation © 2008 by Prentice Hall

22 In-Basket Training Exercise in which participant is asked to establish priorities for and then handle a number of business papers or messages such as memoranda, reports, and telephone messages that would typically cross a manager’s desk © 2008 by Prentice Hall

23 On-the-Job Training Informal T&D method that permits an employee to learn job tasks by actually performing them Most commonly used T&D method No problem transferring what has been learned to the task © 2008 by Prentice Hall

24 Job Rotation Employees move from one job to another to broaden experience Helps new employees understand variety of jobs © 2008 by Prentice Hall

25 Internships Training approach where university students divide time between attending classes and working for organization Excellent means of viewing potential permanent employee at work Students are enabled to integrate theory with practice © 2008 by Prentice Hall

26 Apprenticeship Training
Combines classroom instruction with on-the-job training Traditionally used in craft jobs Apprentice earns less than master craftsperson who is instructor © 2008 by Prentice Hall

27 Training & Development Delivery Systems
Corporate Universities Colleges and Universities Community Colleges Online Higher Education Videoconferencing Vestibule Training Computer-Based Systems Video Media E-Learning Simulators © 2008 by Prentice Hall

28 Corporate Universities
T&D delivery system provided under the umbrella of the organization Focus on creating organizational change Proactive and strategic Growth attributed to universities’ flexibility Estimated 2,000 in U.S. © 2008 by Prentice Hall

29 Colleges and Universities
Primary delivery system for training professional, technical, and management employees Corporate training programs often partner with colleges and universities © 2008 by Prentice Hall

30 Community Colleges Publicly funded higher education establishments
Deliver vocational training and associate degree programs Rapid technological changes and corporate restructuring have created new demand for community college resources © 2008 by Prentice Hall

31 Online Higher Education
Educational opportunities including degree and training programs delivered either entirely or partially, via the Internet Allows employees to attend class at lunchtime, during day or in evening Reduces commute to school © 2008 by Prentice Hall

32 Videoconferencing Many firms in the United States use videoconferencing and satellite classrooms for delivering T&D Interactive and offers flexibility and spontaneity of traditional classroom Global firms, in particular, can benefit Increase access to training, ensure consistency of instruction, and reduce cost of delivering T&D programs © 2008 by Prentice Hall

33 Vestibule System T&D delivery system that takes place away from the production area on equipment that closely resembles equipment actually used on the job Removes employee from pressure of having to produce while learning Emphasis on learning skills required by job © 2008 by Prentice Hall

34 Video Media DVDs, videotapes, and film clips continues to be popular training delivery systems Especially appealing to small businesses © 2008 by Prentice Hall

35 E-Learning Delivery system for online instruction
Available anytime, anywhere in the world, and in different languages © 2008 by Prentice Hall

36 Virtual Reality Unique extension of e-learning
Permits trainees to view objects from a perspective otherwise impractical or impossible © 2008 by Prentice Hall

37 Simulators Devices or programs that are located away from the job site and replicate actual job demands Example: training of airline pilots in a simulator © 2008 by Prentice Hall

38 Management Development
All learning experiences resulting in upgrading of skills and knowledge needed in current and future managerial positions Imperative managers keep up with latest developments in their fields while managing ever-changing workforce in dynamic environment First-line supervisors, middle managers, and executives may all participate in management development programs © 2008 by Prentice Hall

39 Mentoring Approach to advising, coaching, and nurturing, for creating practical relationship to enhance individual career, personal, and professional growth and development Mentor may be located elsewhere in organization or in another firm Relationship may be formal or informal © 2008 by Prentice Hall

40 Mentoring/Coaching for Women and Minorities
Some believe that having a mentor is essential to make it to the top Mentors tend to seek out their mirror images Since women and minorities are not equally represented at the firm’s top levels, they are often left without a mentor © 2008 by Prentice Hall

41 Specific Roles of Mentors
Coaching Sponsor advancement Provide challenging assignments Protect employees from adverse forces Encourage positive visibility Offer personal support Friendship Acceptance Counseling Role modeling © 2008 by Prentice Hall

42 Coaching Often considered responsibility of immediate boss
Provides assistance much as a mentor © 2008 by Prentice Hall

43 Reverse Mentoring Process where the older employees learn from the younger ones. © 2008 by Prentice Hall

44 Orientation Initial T&D effort designed for employees
Strives to inform them about company, job and workgroup © 2008 by Prentice Hall

45 Purposes of Orientation
Employment situation Company policies and rules Compensation and benefits Corporate culture Team membership Employee development Dealing with change Socialization © 2008 by Prentice Hall

46 Responsibility for and Scheduling of Orientation
Often joint responsibility of training staff and line supervisor Peers often excellent information agents © 2008 by Prentice Hall

47 Onboarding (Executive Orientation)
Help new executives quickly learn organization’s structure, culture and politics so they can start making contributions to organization as soon as possible © 2008 by Prentice Hall

48 Special Training Areas
Diversity - Develop sensitivity to create more harmonious working environment English as a Second Language - Help employees in way that validates them and optimizes personal relationships Ethics - Develop corporate culture that rewards ethical behavior Telecommuter - Permit manager and employee to define job responsibilities and set goals and expectations © 2008 by Prentice Hall

49 Special Training Areas (Cont.)
Customer Service - Teaches employees the skills needed to meet and exceed customer expectations Conflict Resolution - Communication skills needed to resolve gridlock Teamwork - How to work in groups Empowerment - How to make decisions and accept responsibility © 2008 by Prentice Hall

50 Special Training Areas (Cont.)
Remedial - Basic literacy/mathematics skills Anger Management - Help participants take control of angry outbursts © 2008 by Prentice Hall

51 Implementing Human Resource Development Programs
Often difficult Many managers are action-oriented Feel they are too busy to engage in T&D efforts Qualified trainers must be available Requires high degree of creativity © 2008 by Prentice Hall

52 Metrics for Evaluating Training and Development
Participants’ Opinions Extent of Learning Behavioral Change Accomplishment of T&D Objectives Benchmarking © 2008 by Prentice Hall

53 Participants’ Opinions
Measure level of customer satisfaction Overall experience may bias some reports Good way to obtain feedback and to get it quickly and inexpensively © 2008 by Prentice Hall

54 Extent of Learning Determine what participants have learned
Pre-test-post-test control group design Differences are attributed to training provided Problem: Controlling for variables other than training © 2008 by Prentice Hall

55 Behavioral Change Tests may accurately indicate what trainees learn
May give little insight into whether participants to changed their behavior Best demonstration of value: When learning translates into lasting behavioral change © 2008 by Prentice Hall

56 Accomplishment of T&D Objectives
Has it achieved stated objectives and actually impacted performance Might establish a return on investment (ROI) metric © 2008 by Prentice Hall

57 Benchmarking Process of monitoring and measuring a firm’s internal processes, such as operations, and then comparing data with information from companies that excel in those areas Focus on metrics such as: training costs, the ratio of training staff to employees, and whether new or more traditional delivery systems are used © 2008 by Prentice Hall

58 Workforce Investment Act
Replaces Job Training Partnership Act and consolidates more than 70 federal job-training programs Meet needs of business for skilled workers and satisfy training, education, and employment needs of individuals © 2008 by Prentice Hall

59 Organization Development (OD)
Planned process of improving an organization by developing its structures, systems, and processes to improve effectiveness and achieve desired goals Applies to entire system such as a company or plant Major means of achieving change in corporate culture © 2008 by Prentice Hall

60 OD Interventions Survey feedback Quality circles Team building
Sensitivity training © 2008 by Prentice Hall

61 Survey Feedback Process of collecting data from organizational unit through use of questionnaires, interviews and other objective data Can create working environments that lead to better working relationships, greater productivity and increased profitability © 2008 by Prentice Hall

62 Survey Feedback Steps Members of organization involved in planning survey All members of organizational unit participate in survey OD consultant usually analyzes data and tabulates results Data feedback Feedback meetings © 2008 by Prentice Hall

63 Quality Circles Groups of employees who voluntarily meet regularly with supervisors to discuss problems Investigate causes Recommend solutions © 2008 by Prentice Hall

64 Team Building Conscious effort to develop effective workgroups
Uses self-directed teams Small group of employees responsible for entire work process Members work together to improve their operation © 2008 by Prentice Hall

65 Sensitivity Training Participants learn about themselves and how others perceive them No agenda, leaders, authority, power positions People learn through dialogue Participants encouraged to learn about themselves and others in group Also called T-group training © 2008 by Prentice Hall

66 A Global Perspective: Learning the Culture of China
The Chinese Language School of Connecticut Inc., a nonprofit organization, has branched out to help companies wishing to initiate trade with China or learn more about the country’s culture and traditions © 2008 by Prentice Hall

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