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Human Resource Management: Gaining a Competitive Advantage

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Presentation on theme: "Human Resource Management: Gaining a Competitive Advantage"— Presentation transcript:

1 Human Resource Management: Gaining a Competitive Advantage
Chapter 07 Training McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

2 Learning Objectives Discuss how training, informal and continuous learning, and knowledge management can contribute to companies’ business strategy. Explain the manager’s role in identifying training needs and supporting training. Conduct a needs assessment. Evaluate employees’ readiness for training. Discuss strengths and weaknesses of presentation, hands-on and group training methods. 7-2

3 Learning Objectives Explain potential e-learning training advantages.
Design a training session to maximize learning. Choose an appropriate evaluation design based on training objectives and analysis of constraints. Design a cross-cultural preparation program. Develop a program for effectively managing diversity. 7-3

4 Continuous & High-Leverage Training
Training facilitates employees’ learning job-related knowledge, skills and behavior. Continuous learning requires employees to understand the entire work process, acquire and apply new skills and share what they have learned with others. High-leverage training is: linked to strategic business goals and objectives, supported by top management, relies on an instructional design model, and is benchmarked to programs in other organizations. 7-4

5 Training can... Increase employees’ knowledge of foreign competitors and cultures. Help ensure that employees have skills to work with new technology. Help employees understand how to work effectively in teams to contribute to product and service quality. Improve employee performance which leads to improved business results. 7-5

6 Training can... Ensure that the company’s culture emphasizes innovation, creativity and learning. Ensure employment security by providing new ways for employees to contribute when their jobs change or interests change skills become obsolete Prepare employees to work more effectively with each other. 7-6

7 Formal and Informal Training
Formal training is instructor led and on-line programs, courses and events developed and organized by the company. Informal training is learner initiated, involves action and doing, is motivated by an intent to develop and does not occur in a formal learning setting. 7-7

8 2 Types of Knowledge Tacit Knowledge Explicit Knowledge
personal knowledge based on individual experience difficult to codify. Explicit Knowledge well documented, easily articulated and transferred person to person. 7-8

9 Key Features of Continuous Training
Knowledge Management Informal Learning Formal Training & Development Supports Business Strategy Focus on Performance 7-9

10 Strategic Learning & Development Process
Business Strategy Strategic Learning & Development Initiatives Learning Activities Metrics 7-10

11 The Training Process 1. Needs Assessment
Organizational, Person and Task Analysis 2. Ensuring Employees’ Readiness for training Attitudes and motivation Basic skills 3. Creating a Learning Environment Identify learning objectives and training outcomes Meaningful material Practice, feedback and observation of others Administering and coordinating program 7-11

12 Designing Effective Training Activities
4. Ensure Transfer of Training Self-management strategies Peer and manager support 5. Select Training Methods Presentational Methods Hands-on Methods Group Methods 6. Evaluate Training Programs Identify Training outcomes & evaluation design Cost-benefit analysis 7-12

13 Needs Assessment Process
Organization Analysis Person Analysis Task Analysis 7-13

14 3 Factors to Choose Training
Company’s Strategic Direction Available Training Resources Support- Manager and Peers 7-14

15 5 Factors That Influence Employee Performance and Learning
Person characteristics Input Output Consequences Feedback 1. Person characteristics Ability and skill Attitudes and motivation 2. Input Understand what, how, when to perform Necessary resources (equipment, etc.) Interference from other job demands Opportunity to perform 3. Output Expectations for learning performance 4. Consequences Positive consequences/incentives to perform Few negative consequences to perform 5. Feedback Frequent and specific feedback about how the job is performed 7-15

16 Identify knowledge, skills and abilities, etc.
Task Analysis Identify jobs Develop task list Identify knowledge, skills and abilities, etc. Validate tasks 7-16

17 Factors That Influence Motivation to Learn
Efficacy Self- Benefits or Consequences of Training Work Environment Basic Skills Awareness of Training Needs Goal Orientation Conscientiousness 7-17

18 Ensure Employee Motivation for Learning
Motivation to learn – trainee’s desire to learn the training program’s content. Self-efficacy- employees' belief that they can successfully learn the training program’s content. 7-18

19 Ensuring Employee Readiness for Learning
To increase employees' self-efficacy level: Let employees know that the purpose of training is to improve performance. 2. Provide information about the training program and purpose prior to actual training. 3. Show employees their peers’ training success. 4. Provide employees feedback that learning is under their control and they have the ability and responsibility to overcome learning difficulties experienced in the program. 7-19

20 Basic Skills S K I L Reading and Cognitive Ability– Writing Abilities–
verbal comprehension, quantitative ability and reasoning ability Reading and Writing Abilities– level of difficulty of written materials 7-20

21 7 Conditions for Learning
Need to know why they should learn. Meaningful training content. Opportunities to practice or social network interaction. Feedback. Observe, experience, and interact with others. Good program coordination and administration. Commit training content to memory. 7-21

22 Transfer of Training Transfer of training Climate for transfer
Technological support Opportunity to use learned capability Transfer of training Self-management skills Manager support Peer support 7-22

23 Selecting Training Methods
Presentation Methods Instructor-led classroom instruction Distance learning, teleconferencing & webcasting Audiovisual techniques Mobile technologies Hands-on Methods On-the-job training Self-directed learning Simulations Business games and case studies Behavior modeling Interactive video E-learning 7-23

24 Evaluating Training Programs
OUTCOME Cognitive Outcomes Skill-based Outcomes Affective Outcomes Results ROI WHAT IS MEASURED Acquisition of Knowledge Behavior Skills Motivation Reaction to Program Attitudes Company Payoff Economic value of training HOW MEASURED Pencil and paper tests Work sample Observation Ratings Interviews Focus groups Attitude surveys Data from information system or performance records Identification& cost comparison & program benefits 7-24

25 Evaluation Designs Posttest Only Time Series
Pretest/Posttest with comparison group Posttest only with comparison group Pretest/Posttest 7-25

26 Determining Return on Investment
Cost-benefit analysis - process of determining a training program’s economic benefits using accounting methods. Determine costs Determine benefits Make the analysis 7-26

27 Cross-Cultural Preparation
Expatriate- is an employee sent by a company to manage operations in a different country. Expatriates need to be: Competent in their area of expertise. Able to communicate verbally and nonverbally in host country. Flexible, tolerant of ambiguity and sensitive to cultural differences. Motivated to succeed, able to enjoy the challenge of working in other countries, and willing to learn about the host country’s culture, language and customs. Supported by their families. 7-27

28 3 Phases of Cross-Cultural Preparation
Inclusion Phase One: Pre-departure Phase Phase Two: On-Site Phase Phase Three: Repatriation Phase 7-28

29 Managing Diversity and Inclusion
Managing Diversity- is the process of creating an environment that allows all employees to contribute to organizational goals and experience personal growth. 2 Types of Diversity Training: Attitude awareness and change programs Behavior-based programs 2 Goals of Diversity Training and Inclusion: Eliminate values, stereotypes, and managerial practices that inhibit employees’ personal development . Allow employees to contribute to organizational goals regardless of their race, sexual orientation, gender, family status, religious orientation, or cultural background. 7-29

30 Managing Diversity Programs
Top Management & Employee Support Recruit & Hire Fair Treatment Hold Managers Accountable Identify & Develop Talent Improve Relationships with External Stakeholders 7-30

31 Socialization and Orientation
Organizational Socialization –is the process used to transform new employees into effective company members. 3 Phases of Socialization: Anticipatory Socialization Encounter Settling In 7-31

32 Summary Technological innovations, new product markets, and a diverse workforce have increased the need for companies to reexamine how their training practices contribute to learning. The key to successful training is choosing the most effective training method. Managing diversity and cross-cultural preparation are two training issues relevant to capitalize on a diverse workforce and global markets. 7-32

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