NPP estimation from FIA plots Jenkins, J.C., Birdsey, R.A., and Pan, Y. 2001. Biomass and NPP estimation for the mid-Atlantic (USA) region using plot-level forest inventory data. Ecological Applications 11: 1174-1193.
Dendrometer bands on all tally trees are used to measure wood increment over periods shorter than standard FIA remeasurement interval. Measurements are made annually (major growth occurs in the spring).
Eight litterbaskets are placed on each plot (2 baskets per subplot) where they do not interfere with other indicator measurements. Litterfall data are collected at one-two month intervals year-round. Annual results are calculated per plot as the mean of these litter measurements.
Potential aboveground forest biomass (Mg ha -1 )
Schimel et al. (2000). Contribution of increasing CO 2 and climate to carbon storage by ecosystems in the United States. Science 287: 2004-2006.
Pre AD 1500 was 20% forested Now only 15% forest National Reforestation goal to reachieve 20% forest cover Ukraine
Modified from: Schelhaas, M.J. et al. 2004. CO2FIX V 3.1 – A modelling framework for quantifying carbon sequestration in forest ecosystems.
Old-growth temperate forests share higher levels of biomass and carbon storage compared to young and mature stands add picture
Data: Swanson 2007, Kun et al. 2007, Xu 1992, Spies et al. 2008, Chernyavskyy 2005, Keeton et al. 2007 OG > M: P < 0.001
Modified with permission from: M. E. Swanson 2007 Aboveground Biomass in Temperate Old-growth Forests
Biomass vs. Stand Age, U.S. Pacific Northwest N=204
Aboveground Tree (Live + Dead) Biomass vs. Stand Age
300 0 Biomass (Mg/ha) Stand Age (years) 0100200400300 Empirical Data from Keeton et al. (2007) and others Empirical Data from Bormann and Likens (1979) Theoretical Projections from Bormann and Likens (1979)
Extended Rotations Periodic annual increment Mean annual increment Stand age (Years) 20120 Cubic ft./acre/year 0 300 From Curtis (1997)
0 % 100 %80 % 20 %80 % 20 % Removal at Harvest Retention at Harvest Entries per Rotation Age Classes 1 2 - 3 4 or more Even-aged (1 class) Multi-aged (2-3 classes) Uneven-aged (4 or more classes) Figure from Franklin et al. (1997) Variable Retention Harvest System
40 cm max. 50 cm max.80-100 cm max. Maximized volume production Lower vol. production but large dimension sawtimber Maximized large sawtimber volume and value growth Low CarbonMedium CarbonHigh Carbon LowIntermediateHigh Stand Structural Complexity # stems Diameter # stems Diameter # stems
1.Single-Tree Selection BDq modified to enhance post-harvest structural retention 2.Group Selection BDq modified to enhance post-harvest structural retention Mimic opening sizes (0.05 ha) created by fine-scale disturbances (Seymour et al. 2002) 3. Structural Complexity Enhancement: Promotes development of late-successional/old- growth characteristics Vermont Forest Ecosystem Management Demonstration Project
Rotated Sigmoid Diameter Distribution Shift in basal area allocation to larger size classes Often found in old-growth northern hardwoods and mixed-woods Varies with disturbance history, stand composition, and competitive dynamics Theoretical silvicultural utility proposed (O’Hara 1999, Leak 2003) # of Trees Diameter Class
Crown Release to Increase the Representation of Large Trees 30 60 150300 Age (Years) DBH (cm) No release Partial crown releaseFull crown release Data from Singer and Lorimer (1997)
Cumulative Projected Total Basal Area How much have we accelerated growth rates? Normalized cumulative BAI: “treatment BAI” minus “no treatment BAI” at each time step Keeton. 2006. Forest Ecology and Management
178.9 Mg/ha NE-FVS projections run in NED-2: “planting” to simulate regeneration Regeneration based on plot data Mixed species, proportions as sampled
100 0 200300400500600 25 50 75 100 125 Carbon (Mg/ha) Years Total carbon sequestration + emissions offset Biofuel offset of fossil fuel emissions Soil carbon Carbon in aboveground biomass Carbon in wood fuel CO2fix Model Simulation: Scenario = harvest for biomass only, northern hardwood stand, UVM Jericho Research Forest Data courtesy of Andy Book, Mike Thomas, and John Shane
Carbon (Mg/ha) Total carbon sequestration + emissions offset Soil carbon Years 125 100 75 50 25 0 100200300400500 Carbon in wood products Biofuel offset CO2fix Model Simulation Scenario = low intensity selection harvest for durable wood products and biomass, northern hardwood stand, UVM Jericho Research Forest Carbon in aboveground biomass Data courtesy of Andy Book, Mike Thomas, and John Shane
Conclusions Even, multi-aged, and uneven-aged silvicultural options are available for increasing net carbon storage Options include: –Longer rotations or entry cycles –Post-harvest retention –Modified uneven-aged approaches that promote structural complexity and high biomass conditions –Passive management: reserves that will develop high levels of biomass