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Uneven-aged beech stand, Germany. Uneven-aged mixed-hardwood stand, Michigan.

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Presentation on theme: "Uneven-aged beech stand, Germany. Uneven-aged mixed-hardwood stand, Michigan."— Presentation transcript:

1 Uneven-aged beech stand, Germany

2 Uneven-aged mixed-hardwood stand, Michigan

3 Uneven-aged mixed spruce/fir stand, Germany

4 Density and structure in uneven-aged stands are defined by: Overall density (basal area after cutting) Maximum diameter Relative proportions of large and small trees), diameter distribution or Q-value

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7 Marking guide: < 11” – no cutting 12 – 16 or small sawtimber – cut 1/5 of trees or large sawtimber – cut 1/6 > 24 inches or mature – remove all

8 Density management Area (e.g., 4 size classes, each covering the same area) Leaf area allocation (after K. O’Hara) –Represents occupied 3-D growing space –Is related to rates of energy and material exchange Calculating growing space efficiency by relating tree increment to leaf area Growing space efficiency of trees is determined by crown class, age, or species Optimize structures for growth

9 Selection criteria in uneven- aged stands Maturity Risk Vigor Soundness Stem form, crown size and branching habit Species Crown position Release effect (of seedlings/saplings)

10 Single Tree Selection: Means: cutting single tree and growing single trees Only limited reduction of below-ground competition More diffuse light, but only limited direct light (sunflecs) Moderate increase in soil temperature and nutrient release Overall, environmental conditions are fairly stable

11 Single-tree selection: Density management is a combination/compromise between good growing conditions for overstory trees and establishment of regeneration Continuous forest cover –Usually not limiting to germination –Limiting to growth and survival of shade intolerant species

12 To ensure regeneration of shade intolerant species: On stable sites –Reduce overall density Tradeoffs in growth Longer cutting cycles –Sort out species in pre-commercial thinning entries –Pruning to reduce LAI

13 Single tree selection: High vertical structure –Wildlife habitat –Fire ladder Disease potential –Mistletoe

14 Uneven-aged mixed spruce/fir forests, single tree selection Switzerland

15 Group selection: “Homogenous” groups created by “patchy” cutting patterns Provides more resources (light) for regeneration cohorts –Regeneration of intermediate shade tolerant trees More efficient harvesting and management of regeneration

16 Uneven-aged mixed spruce/fir forests, group selection, Germany

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18 Group selection: Resource availability driven by –Group size –Spatial layout –Size and density of neighboring trees –Slope –Aspect Not homogenous within group (and stand edge)

19 Group selection Resource (light, moisture, nutrients) increase within opening –Edge effect due to surrounding trees Higher light/temperature conditions in group improve decomposition/nutrient release within opening Range of conditions within group and edge (in matrix) may lead to recruitment of multiple species

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21 Uneven-aged mixed (oak) hardwood forest, group selection, Germany

22 Group selection Trees are not necessarily naturally grouped – Cutting of immature trees Edge effect may reduce “ecological size” of group –Especially with irregular shapes Difficult to map and document –Inventory methods may have to be modified –On ground work is complicated May require different access system –Changes over time

23 Guide to implementation of group cutting Determine desired number of age classes and gap sizes Calculate number of gaps per acre Based on –density of mature trees –area in gaps –calculate number of trees to be cut

24 Conversion: Irregular stands are easier to convert During Conversion –Lower residual densities –Longer cutting cycles –Lower maximum diameter –Keeping healthy trees regardless of form or species

25 Ex - Uneven-aged mixed spruce/fir forests, managed with single tree selection until 20 years ago, no management since, Germany

26 Skidder traffic - Feller buncher traffic - Traffic patterns on a harvesting unit

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