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India’s Sustainable Development Challenges Dr Ritu Mathur, TERI June 17, 2013.

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Presentation on theme: "India’s Sustainable Development Challenges Dr Ritu Mathur, TERI June 17, 2013."— Presentation transcript:

1 India’s Sustainable Development Challenges Dr Ritu Mathur, TERI June 17, 2013

2 Sustainable development: Global genesis (1) The term ‘sustainable development’ was coined by Indian economist, Nitin Desai, while he was a senior economic adviser to the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) that was established by UNEP Governing Council in 1983; this Commission later came to be known as the Brundtland Commission “…development policy, in the broadest sense and environmental policy be integrated in a common framework. The concept of 'sustainable development' can provide the basis for such an integration…” (Desai [1986], correspondence dated 27 June 1986)

3 Sustainable development: Global genesis (2) DEFINITION Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It contains within it two key concepts: the concept of 'needs', in particular the essential needs of the world's poor, to which overriding priority should be given; and the idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization on the environment's ability to meet present and future needs. (Chapter 2, Our Common Future: Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987)

4 Sustainable development: Indian context The Constitution of India The National Environment Policy Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-1990) Article 21 conferring the Right to Life encompasses right to clean environment, right to livelihood, right to live with dignity and a number of other associated rights The Directive Principles of State Policy often referred to as the ‘conscience’ of the Constitution are intended to ensure ‘distributive justice’ and that political democracy in India is accompanied side by side with social and economic democracy “only such development is sustainable, which respects ecological constraints and the imperatives of social justice” “If the gains in productivity are to be sustained, resources must also continue to be available over time. This requires that, while providing for current needs, the resources base be managed so as to enable sustainable development.” (Volume 2, Chapter 18)

5 Dimensions of Sustainability Source: Munasinghe, M, (1994)

6 5 Basic Human-Nature relationship paradigms Frontier economics: Focus on materialistic progress; unbridled exploitation of infinite natural resources; Deep ecology: Anti-growth; ‘harmony with nature’ as main imperative; bio-centric rather than anthropocentric view of the human-nature relationship Environmental protection: Primary imperative to manage ‘trade-offs’ in ecology vs economic growth (optimizing pollution) Resource management: Focus on ‘economizing ecology’ & “interdependence” between environment and development; “Sustainability” as necessary constraint for “green growth” Eco-development: Based on the theme of ‘ecologizing economy’ and ‘ecological uncertainty’; co-developing humans and nature

7 Components of sustainable development: Emerging views Also focus on interfaces around components of sustainable development Social ecology (social and environment) Green economy (economic and environment) Social equity (social and economic) Also see GoI (2010), official submission to UNCSD second preparatory committee meeting, pg 30 Figure Interfaces of the components of sustainable development

8 SD and its many interpretations! As a ‘concept’ the two words in the phrase refer to two different thought systems and the relationship between the two is often defined/analyzed on the basis of a particular scientific domain or a specific cultural context As an ‘ethical principle’ ‘sustainability’ vs ‘SD’; normative and positive approaches As an ‘ideology’ North-South conflicts As an ‘area of knowledge complexity, cross or trans-disciplinary

9 Rio +20, 2012 The Future We Want: ‘eradicating poverty the greatest global challenge …. and an indispensable requirement for SD’ ‘green economy …. as one of the important tools available for achieving SD and that could provide options for policymaking but should not be a rigid set of rules’ need for an improved and more effective institutional framework for SD (decision to establish a high-level inter-governmental political forum) SD goals to complement MDGs beyond 2015

10 India’s Grand Challenges A population of 1.2 billion likely to stabilise only in 2160 at about 1.6 billion! Average age of Indian in 2020 26 years 70% of this in rural India dependent almost entirely on agriculture Agriculture contributes to ~ 14% of GDP Population below poverty line estimated at 37.2% in 2005 50% children born under-weight; 59% under-5s stunted

11 India’s Grand Challenges Rural to Urban Migration By 2030 over 40% of people in Urban areas 63.5 million new entrants to working age group between 2011 and 2016 Only 15.6% regular salaried employment, 33.5 % casual labour and 51% self employed in 2009-10 Human Development Report measures Development in form of Health, Education and a decent standard of living India dropped to 134 out of 187 countries in 2011

12 Available land per capita


14 Total Annual Rainfall

15 Fresh water run-off

16 Water Storage Capacity

17 Freshwater Withdrawals

18 This diagram shows the impact of expected population growth on water usage by 2025, based on the UN mid-range population projection. It uses the current rate of water use per person without taking into account possible increases in water use due to economic growth or improvements in water use efficiency

19 The importance of small forestry enterprises in developing countries

20 Biodiversity Impacts

21 Primary energy consumption per capita BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2012 © BP 2012

22 Mapping Energy Access Final energy access (non-commercial share) in relation to population density

23 Environmental Carrying Capacity

24 Agricultural vulnerability to Climate Change


26 Shape of Things to Come – More consumption The survey shows the share of the food basket in total consumption expenditure is coming down in both rural and urban India. The share of food in consumer expenditure was 57% in rural India and 44.4% in urban India. The share of food in total consumption has declined since 1987-88 by about 10 percentage points to 53.6% in the rural sector and by about 16 percentage points to 40.7% in the urban sector. In rural India, people are spending less and less on cereals, edible oil and fruits. They are spending more on pulses, milk, non-vegetarian items and beverages. In urban India, consumption of nearly all food items is either going down or is constant compared with the earlier survey. In both rural and urban India, consumption of non-food items, which include consumer durables, education and recreation, among others, has gone up as a result of the decline in expenditure on food items. NSSO, 66 th Round

27 India’s Grand Challenges Needs to provide JOBS – Growth in Manufacturing Sector Needs to create sustainable infrastructure Needs to innovate Needs new models of development Sustainable urbanization Energy and Resources


29 Water Audits: Enhancing Water Use Efficiency Industries, City Supply systems Power Plant:  Immediate saving potential of about (81000 m 3 /day) 23% of total intake water  Total overall water saving potential: ~ 60% of the total intake water (freshwater).  Significant financial savings from water saving interventions: ~ INR 7-9 Crores.  Cost benefit of water recycling system: Positive with a payback period of 2.3 years.

30 Urban Water Demand Management BHOPALGWALIORJABALPURINDORE Water losses (%)22.843.233.830.5 Non-revenue water (NRW) (%) 28.243.936.938.4

31 Integrated Watershed Management

32 Kolahoi Glacier East Rathong Glacier East Rathong Glacier (Sikkim) West Sikkim (N 27º 33‘, 27º48‘: E 88º 46‘, 88º51‘, snout elevation: 4675 masl, south facing) Kolahoi Glacier (Kashmir) Lidder Valley, Jammu and Kashmir (N 34º 07‘-34º 12‘: E 75º 16‘-75º 23‘, snout elevation: 3700 masl north facing) Glacier Studies Phase 1: Establishment of Glacier Monitoring Observatories/ field laboratories Phase 2: Analysis of satellite data and field experiments for calculation of modelling constants Phase 3: Development of integrated runoff model

33 Impacts of climate change & watershed development on agricultural water security


35 Lighting…

36 We commit to enable a billion lives to access light from solar technologies The Energy and Resources Institute A Solar Lighting Program launched by The Energy and Resources Institute Lighting a Billion Lives © a Official Launch by Hon’ble Prime Minister of India Feb, 2008

37 Lighting a Billion Lives © a (LaBL) A commitment to improving the quality of lives of rural communities LaBL sets up solar charging stations in energy poor villages that offer certified, bright, and quality solar lanterns for rental to the local people. A trained local entrepreneur operates and manages the charging station and leases the solar lanterns every evening for a very affordable fee.

38 LaBL: Innovating at Every Step  Continuous improvements in solar lantern designs with reputed technology partners, driving down cost and improving efficiency & quality  Charging stations expandable to solar energy hubs, providing services like water purification and multi-purpose battery charging  Creation of an after-sales service network, the Technical Resource Center (TRC), for repair services through local community representatives  Implementation of mobile phone charging facilities through LaBL stations, under the support of Dept of Telecommunications, Govt. of India

39 Funding Partners Corporations, CSR Initiatives, Co- financing schemes, Government, Individuals LaBL Model: Reaching the Base of the Pyramid Specification development, Design testing, Product innovation Steering Committee and Patrons Technology Partners Quality Product suppliers and Service providers TERI Program coordination, Implementation, Monitoring and supervision, Outreach Partner Organizations (local NGOs, grassroots organizations) Ground support, Identification of sites and Selection of entrepreneurs Entrepreneurs (village youth, women, teachers) Operate & Manage solar energy charging stations Community : Ultimate users and beneficiaries Technology Resource Centres After-sales services

40 LaBL Impact: Lighting Facilitates Livelihood in Villages  Productive hours in the evening with non- polluting, bright, and reliable lighting  Income generation for the entrepreneur and the trained repair service providers Facilitates Education in Villages  Better illumination and additional hours for students to study Facilitates Health in Villages  Solar lanterns being rented by village level Primary Health Centres Facilitates Bio-conservation  Solar lighting in villages within & around eco- reserves acts as incentive towards wildlife protection by providing alternative livelihood options Benefiting farmers in tasks like picking betel leaves and watering plants at night Covering 23 tribal residential schools in Orissa, providing lighting for over 1500 students Midwives using LaBL lanterns to bring life on earth in a smoke free environment. More than 50 such deliveries reported across 18 villages Partnering with organizations like Tiger Watch to support biodiversity conservation

41 LaBL: Bringing Technology to the Masses Cost of Illuminating a village with 50 lanterns (INR in Thousands) Lighting a Billion Lives- Learning Curve

42 Solar Hybrid Renewable Energy Power Plant Hybridization of biomass gasifier based boiler with trough based, 50 kW CSP to increase its utilization period.

43 600+ thermal gasifiers have been installed in different sectors The replications of thermal applications of gasifier in various MSME have clearly established the gasifier technology as a cost effective energy delivery system. Generated positive spin- off effects, both within and outside the country Energy savings and CO 2 reductions (including MSME component) Gasifier applications in MSMEs

44 Annually one-third of the harvested fruits and vegetables, worth about USD 12 billion lost due to lack of post-harvest handling and storage. In 2006, we started working on a concept using indigenously available biomass and solar resources to operate small, decentralized cold storage at village level The cold storage system developed, comprises a 15 kW (~5 TR) Vapor Absorption Machine (VAM) coupled with a 50 kWe Biomass Gasifier system and a field of solar concentrating collectors. The first prototype has been installed in Gurgaon near New Delhi Solar Biomass Hybrid Cold Storage and Power Generation

45 Evolving landscape of sustainable habitats in India Over 100 audits CII-Sorabhji Godrej Green Business Centre, Hyderabad Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, GoI

46 Thank you

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