Presentation on theme: "TYPOLOGY OF MORPHOLOGICAL SYSTEMS OF ENGLISH AND UKRAINIAN"— Presentation transcript:
1 TYPOLOGY OF MORPHOLOGICAL SYSTEMS OF ENGLISH AND UKRAINIAN Structure of the word
2 Morphemes Morphemes are the smallest meaningfull units of language. Some morphemes are meaningful by themselvesthunderstorm = thunder + stormclassroom = class + room... and some need to be added to other morphemes.madly = mad + lycars = car + s
3 Types of morphemesfree (can stand alone) vs. bound (can't stand alone)derivational (generate new words) vs. inflectional (contain grammatical information)
5 Bound morphemesThe distinction between derivational and inflectional morphemes relates to the function they perform.Derivation produces entirely new words (lexemes) by adding affixeshappy (ADJECTIVE) happily (ADVERB)courage (NOUN) encourage (VERB)Inflection adds grammatical information to an existing word without changing its word classJohn plays the piano
6 AllomorphismsIn E inflectional morphemes are always suffixes, while in U they are prefixes and suffixesU has more bound morphemesE has more grammatical free morphemesHomonymy of free and bound morphemes is more typical of E
7 Homonymy of bound morphemes in English John plays the pianoThe two dogs belong to MikeLisa's car broke downThe cat’s eaten the mouse
8 Homonymy of free morphemes in English He promised he would comeOtherwise I would do itI asked him but he wouldn’t sayHe said he’d done itHe said he’d do itFind examples
9 Recategorisation as an allomorphism from one class to anothercome round the cornercome round with some fresh airwithin a class (from one subcategory to another)from abstract to concrete (a youth meaning ‘a boy’)from uncountable to countable (wines ),from proper to common (an Einstein meaning ‘a genius’, a Benedict Arnold meaning ‘a traitor’).
10 Part of speech division MeaningFormFunctionкрасивий, летитьbeautifulflies, can“Time flies like an arrow, fruit flies like a banana”Саn he can me for kicking the can?
11 Lexical paradigm of nomination syntactico-distributional classification of words was worked out by L.Bloomfield, Z.Harris, and Ch.Fries.The classification suggests four classesN V A Dpower - empower - powerful - powerfullypro- N pro- V pro- A pro- D
12 grammatical categories grammatical category is a system expressing a generalized grammatical meaning by means of paradigmatic correlation of grammatical forms.Marked member vs. unmarked memberThe set of grammatical forms in a category constitute the paradigm of the category.
13 Obligatory categories "she found a table" or "she found the table “*she found table
14 Contrastive study of grammatical categories a) the absence of the morphological categories in one of the compared languagesb) partial correspondencec) complete correspondence.