4 Properties of Acids Taste sour Corrosive and can burn skin React with litmus paper: red to yellow.
5 Common Acids Foods contains acids Citrus fruits citric acid Vinegar, or acetic acid, is in pickled foods2. You have hydrochloric acid (HCl) in your stomach.
6 Common Acids Four acids vital to industry. Sulfuric acid - used in car batteries and the manufacturing of fertilizersPhosphoric acid - used to manufacture detergents, fertilizers, and soft drinksNitric acid - used to manufacture fertilizers and explosiveHydrochloric acid – used to clean steel
7 Bases Base - forms hydroxide ions (OH-) in water. Compliments or opposites of acids
8 Properties of Bases Many are crystals Feel slippery Strong bases are corrosivelitmus paper turns blue-purple
9 Common BasesAmmonia & Sodium Hydroxide - are used in cleaners, fertilizers, rayon, nylonMagnesium Hydroxide - medicationsAluminum Hydroxide – color fast fabrics
10 Solutions of Acids and Bases Acid describes compounds that can be ionized in water to form hydronium ionsBase describes compounds that can form hydroxide ions in solutionSolutions of acids and solutions of bases are electric conductors to some extent
11 Discussion QuestionsWhy should a person never use taste testing to identify an acid or a base?
12 Answers Acids and Bases can be corrosive and cause damage to tissue Sulfuric, phosphoric, nitric, hydrochloric
13 Section 2 Strength of Acids and Bases The strength of an acid or a base depends on how completely a compound separates into ions when dissolving in water
14 Strong Acids and Strong Bases A strong acid ionizes (or loses H+) almost completely in solutionA strong base dissociates (or forms OH-) completely in solutionEquations for strong acids and bases use a single arrow indicating ions are formedStrong acids and bases conduct more electricity than weak ones
15 Weak Acids and Weak Bases A weak acid/base only partly ionizes in solutionEquations for weak acids and bases use double arrows pointing in opposite directions, indicating an incomplete reactionDilute and concentrated are terms to describe the amount of acid or base dissolved
16 pH of a SolutionpH - a measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in a solution or how acidic or basic it ispH lower than 7 = acidicpH greater than 7 = basicpH exactly equal to 7 = neutral
17 pH of a SolutionpH is determined by a universal indicator paper or pH meterBuffers – solutions containingions that react withadditional acids orbases to minimizetheir effects on pH.
18 Discussion QuestionIs a strong acid the same thing as a concentrated acid? Why or Why Not?
19 AnswerNot necessarily the same; strength refers to ionization in a solution while concentration refers to the amount of acid or base dissolved
21 NeutralizationChemical reaction between an acid and a base taking place in a water solutionHydronium ions from the acid combine with hydroxide ions from the base to produce neutral water
22 SaltsSalt - compound formed when the negative ions from an acid combine with the positive ions of a baseSalt is essential for many animalsOther salt uses include manufacturing of paint, rubber, glass, soap, detergents, and dry cell batteries
23 TitrationUsed to determine the concentrations of an acidic or basic solutionA solution of known concentration is the standard solutionAn acid/base indicator is added to an unknown solutionA color change that is constantis the end point.
24 Soaps and Detergents Soaps Are organic salts with polar and nonpolar ends.The nonpolar, hydrocarbon end interacts with oil and dirtThe polar end helps oil and dirt dissolve in waterDetergentsForm more soluble salts with the ions in hard water
25 EstersCome from alcohols that are not bases but have a hydroxyl (-OH) groupEsters are used in fruit flavorings and perfumesPolyesters are synthetic fibers used to make fabrics
26 Discussion QuestionWhat are two ways salts can form?
27 AnswerWhen an acid and a base combine their negative and positive ionsWhen an acid reacts with a metal