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Chapter Seven: Interest Groups and Political Parties
Learning Outcomes LO 1 Describe the basic characteristics of interest groups, and explain why Americans join them. LO 2 List the major types of interest groups, especially those with economic motivations. LO 3 Discuss direct and indirect interest group techniques, and describe the main ways in which lobbyists are regulated. LO 4 Cite some of the major activities of U.S. political parties, and discuss how they are organized. LO 5 Explain how the history of U.S. political parties has led to the two major parties that exist today. LO 6 Give reasons why the two-party system has endured in America, and evaluate the impact of third parties and independents on U.S. politics. Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning 2
A Nation of Joiners Interest Groups and Social Movements Reasons to Join—or Not Join Three reasons to join Solidary incentives Material incentives Purposive incentives Those who do not join Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning 3
Types of Interest Groups Economic Interest Groups Business Agricultural Labor Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning 4
Decline in Union Membership, 1948 to Present Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning 5
Types of Interest Groups Economic Interest Groups Public employee unions The political environment faced by labor Interest groups of professionals Unorganized poor Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning6
Types of Interest Groups Environmental Groups Today’s environmental groups Global warming Greenhouse gases Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning7
Types of Interest Groups Public-Interest Groups The consumer movement Other public-interest groups Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning8
Types of Interest Groups Additional Types of Interest Groups Ideological Groups Identity Groups Foreign Interest Groups Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning9
Interest Group Strategies Direct Techniques Lobbying techniques The ratings game Campaign assistance Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning10 Georgia governor Nathan Deal (on the left) meets with a lobbyist during a session of the state’s legislature. Why would he willingly be photographed with lobbyists?
These women are leaders of a new lobbying firm called Chamber Hill Strategies. Do lobbyists spend their time supporting political candidates? Why or why not? Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning 11
Interest Group Strategies Indirect Techniques Generating public pressure Using constituents as lobbyists Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning 12
Interest Group Strategies Regulating Lobbyists Federal Regulation of Lobbying Act 1946 The Lobbying Disclosure Act Recent legislation Honest Leadership and Open Government Act Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning 13
Governor Scott Walker Confronts Protesters in Wisconsin Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning 14 Click picture to play video
Governor Scott Walker Confronts Protesters in Wisconsin Taking a closer look: 1. These demonstrators represent which type of interest group? 2. Why do the Democratic senators appear to be sympathetic to the protestors? 3. What other tactics might be successful for this interest group? Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning 15
Political Parties in the United States Functions of Political Parties in the United States Recruiting candidates Organizing and running elections Presenting alternative policies to the electorate Accepting responsibility for running the government Acting as the organized opposition to the party iin power Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning 16
Political Parties in the United States Party Organization The national party organization Convention delegates The national committee The state party organization Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning 17
Political Parties in the United States Party Organization Local party machinery: The grassroots Patronage The party-in-government Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning 18
A History of Political Parties in the United States The Formative Years: Federalists and Anti- Federalists Federalists and Republicans One-Party Interlude Democrats and Whigs Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning19
A History of Political Parties in the United States The Civil War Crisis The Post-Civil War Period Cultural politics The triumph of Republicans The Progressive Interlude Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning20
A History of Political Parties in the United States The New Deal Era An Era of Divided Government The parties in balance Red state, blue state Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning21
A History of Political Parties in the United States The Parties Today Wave elections sweep out the Republicans Democrats in trouble Republican overreach The 2012 elections Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning22
Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning 23 Governor Susana Martinez (R., N.M.) addresses the Republican National Convention in 2012. Why do political parties often choose governors as presidential candidates? U.S. senator Kirsten Gillibrand (D., N.Y.) attends Lifetime Television’s 2012 “Every Woman Counts” campaign at Hofstra University. Why are an ever- greater number of women serving in Congress?
The 2012 Presidential Election Results by State Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning24
Why Has the Two-Party System Endured? The Historical Foundations of the Two- Party System Political Socialization and Practical Considerations Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning25
Why Has the Two-Party System Endured? The Winner-Take-All Electoral System Presidential voting Electoral College Popular election of governors and the president Proportional representation Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning26
Why Has the Two-Party System Endured? State and Federal Laws Favoring the Two Parties The Role of Minor Parties in U.S. Politics Ideological third parties Splinter parties The impact of minor parties Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning27
Gary Johnson, a former Republican governor of New Mexico, ran as the Libertarian Party presidential candidate in 2012. How much support do minor parties usually receive? Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning 28
Why Has the Two-Party System Endured? The Rise of the Independents Party identification Straight-ticket voting Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning29
Party Identification from 1944 to the Present Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning 30
Tea Party Express: Party or Movement? Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning 31 Click picture to play video
Tea Party Express: Party or Movement? Taking a closer look: 1. What distinguishes a political party from an interest group? 2. In recent months, does the Tea Party movement appear to be growing or declining? 3. Which demographic groups are underrepresented in this movement? Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning 32
Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2006 Chapter 7 Political Parties American Government: Policy & Politics, Eighth Edition TANNAHILL.
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Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning INTEREST GROUPS Chapter Seven.
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