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Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2006 Chapter 7 Political Parties American Government: Policy & Politics, Eighth Edition TANNAHILL.

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Presentation on theme: "Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2006 Chapter 7 Political Parties American Government: Policy & Politics, Eighth Edition TANNAHILL."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2006 Chapter 7 Political Parties American Government: Policy & Politics, Eighth Edition TANNAHILL

3 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2006 In This Chapter We Will Cover: The party system Party organization The history of parties in America The party balance Voting patterns Issue orientation Divided government

4 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2006 The Party System A political party is a group of individuals who join together to seek government office in order to make public policy.

5 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2006 The Party System A two-party system divides voter loyalties between two major political parties resulting in the near exclusion of minor parties.

6 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2006 The Party System A plurality election system awards office to candidates with the most votes. Use of this form of election may account for the U.S. having a two-party system.

7 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2006 The Party System A third party is a minor party in a two-party system. Over the last decade, the U.S. has seen an upsurge in activity by independent and third party candidates.

8 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2006 Party Organization In a multiparty system voter loyalties are divided among three or more parties. In a system with proportional representation legislative seats are awarded to each party based on their popular voting strength.

9 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2006 The organization of political parties in the United States reflects the federal system, with organizations at both the state and national levels. –State level: Executive party committees are elected by party activists who participate in local party meetings, district conventions, and state party conventions. The executive committee usually elects the state party chair. –National committee and national chair: lead the national party organization. When the party controls the White House, the president handpicks the national chairperson. –The goal of political parties is to control the government. Party Organization

10 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2006 Party Identification, 7-Point Scale, 2002

11 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2006 Party Fund-raising,

12 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2006 The History of Parties in America First Party Era, 1790s to Early 1820s –(The Federalists vs. The Jeffersonians) America’s first political parties emerged from the policy conflict between two members of George Washington’s administration. Second Party Era, the 1820s to 1860 –(The Democrats vs. The Whigs) After the demise of the Federalists, the United States experienced a brief one party period. Third Party Era, 1860 to 1896 –(The Democrats vs. The Republicans) Slavery split the parties. Anti-slavery Democrats and Whigs joined other minor parties to form the Republicans.

13 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2006 The History of Parties in America Fourth Party Era, 1896 to 1932 –The 1896 presidential election between Democrat William Jennings Bryan and Republican William McKinley was a watershed, changing the party balance in favor of the Republicans for the next 30 years. Fifth Party Era, 1932 to 1980 –The Great Depression set the stage for the fifth party era. When the economy collapsed, many voters blamed Republican President Herbert Hoover in Sixth Party Era, Since 1980 –This era is characterized by new voting patterns, a different party balance, and divided government.

14 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2006 The Party Balance Party Identification –Democrats have enjoyed a slim advantage in party identification for most of the current party era except in 1991 during the Persian Gulf War and in the months after the terrorists attack of September 11, Offices Held –Today each political party has a significant hold on public office at both the national and state levels. Money –Republicans enjoy a fundraising edge over the Democrats.

15 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2006 Voting Patterns Income Race and ethnicity Education Gender Age Family and lifestyle status

16 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2006 Voting Patterns Region Political ideology Religion Place of residence

17 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2006 Issue Orientation Democrats favored ratification of the Global Warming Treaty. Republicans called the treaty unrealistic. In the past several decades, the parties have grown further apart in philosophies. The split is usually described as being between liberalism (Democrats) and conservatism (Republicans).

18 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2006 Issue Orientation The Democratic platform called for targeted tax cuts to help people save for college, improve their job skills, pay for health insurance, afford childcare, save for retirement, and care for elderly or disabled loved ones. The Republican platform proposed broad-based tax cuts and the elimination of the inheritance tax.

19 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2006 Issue Orientation The Democrats support legal protection for abortion. Republicans endorsed a constitutional amendment to outlaw abortion in all circumstances.

20 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2006 Selected 2004 Democratic and Republican Party Platform Positions

21 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2006 Selected 2004 Democratic and Republican Party Platform Positions Continued

22 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2006 Divided Government Divided government (one party controlling the legislature while the other holds the executive) has become commonplace in recent decades. Between 1952 and 2000, eight elections resulted in unified government while 16 elections produced divided government. Divided government is common at the state level as well. After the 1998 election, the governors in 26 states faced legislatures with at least one chamber controlled by the opposition party.

23 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2006 Party Control of Executive and Legislative Branches of American National Government Since 1969

24 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2006 Concluding Review Questions How do parties differ from interest groups? Why does America have a two-party system? What do the national political party organizations do? What was the nature of party politics in each of the nation’s party eras?

25 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2006 Concluding Review Questions What are the characteristics of the current party era? What are the reasons for the emergence of divided government? What role do political parties play in the policy process?


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