Presentation on theme: ". Psychologists use the term lifespan development to refer to age-related changes that occur from birth, throughout a person's life, into and during."— Presentation transcript:
Psychologists use the term lifespan development to refer to age-related changes that occur from birth, throughout a person's life, into and during old age. Many changes also occur during the nine months the fetus is developing in the uterus (in utero)..
However, psychologists focus mainly on the development of psychological characteristics after birth. That doesn't mean that in utero experiences do not affect the development of psychological characteristics. For example, a pregnant female who regularly consumes alcohol or is highly stressed for a considerable part of her pregnancy can adversely affect the development of her fetus, both in utero and subsequently after birth
Psychologists who study lifespan development aim to understand, describe, explain and predict the many ways in which our thoughts, feelings and behaviour change throughout our lives. A change must be relatively permanent or ‘lasting’ to be considered a developmental change. For example, a short-term loss of memory as a result of a sporting injury, or an improvement in mood after receiving good news are not considered to be developmental changes. Both of these are changes, but they are only temporary and are therefore not developmental changes.
For each of the following individuals, state whether the thought, feeling or behaviour would be considered a developmental change (D) or would not be considered a developmental change (ND). Give a reason for each answer. o An eight month old infant who cries whenever her mother leaves the room o A six-year-old boy who has learned to play chess o A 50-year-old person who cannot remember anything while anaesthetised during surgery o A 10-year-old girl who now feels confident about sleeping away from home without becoming homesick o A 70-year-old woman who learns how to send an email o A 28-year-old male who believes he is ready to move out of his family home and live independently away from his parents. Give an example of a change you have experienced which would be considered a developmental change and a change that you have experienced which would not be considered a developmental change.
infancy — birth to two years childhood — two years to 10 years adolescence — 10 years to 20 years early adulthood — 20 years to 40 years middle age — 40 years to 65 years older age — 65 years and beyond.
Physical (or biological) development involves changes in the body and its various systems, such as development of the brain and nervous system, bones and muscles, motor skills (movement), and the hormonal changes of puberty and menopause. Social development involves changes in an individual's relationships with other people and their skills in interacting with others, such as the ability to form close relationships and interact with others in a group situation. Cognitive development involves changes in an individual's mental abilities, such as perception, thinking, learning, memory, language, moral reasoning, problem solving and decision making. Emotional development involves changes in how an individual experiences different feelings and how these feelings are expressed, interpreted and dealt with; for example, the way in which anger is expressed by a two-year-old, compared with a 16-year-old and a 50-year- old person.