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By Charles Dickens. Victorian - things and events in the reign of Queen Victoria (1837-1901) Victorian England saw great expansion of wealth, power, and.

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Presentation on theme: "By Charles Dickens. Victorian - things and events in the reign of Queen Victoria (1837-1901) Victorian England saw great expansion of wealth, power, and."— Presentation transcript:

1 By Charles Dickens

2 Victorian - things and events in the reign of Queen Victoria (1837-1901) Victorian England saw great expansion of wealth, power, and culture. Science and technology - modern idea of invention -- the notion that one can create solutions to problems, that man can create new means of bettering himself and his environment.

3 Religion - a great age of doubt - the first that called into question institutional Christianity on such a large scale o In literature and the other arts, the Victorians attempted to combine Romantic emphases upon self, emotion, and imagination with Neoclassical ones upon the public role of art and a corollary responsibility of the artist. Ideology, politics, and society - innovation and change o Democracy, feminism, unionization of workers, socialism, Marxism, and other modern movements took form. o This age of Darwin, Marx, and Freud appears to be not only the first that experienced modern problems but also the first that attempted modern solutions. Sense of social responsibility - a basic attitude that obviously differentiates the Victorians from their immediate predecessors, the Romantics.

4 During the 1780s (period in which the novel is set) – England is relatively peaceful and prosperous o National identity caught up in a long war with France – interrupted by the French Revolution Ideals of the Revolution imported by Romantic writers English aristocracy & middle classes feared the possible change from the Revolution o England had a long history of peaceful social change

5 Industrial Revolution created a new wealthy class o As well as underclass of laborers Ruth Glancy: Overcrowding, disease, hunger, long hours of work, and mindless, repetitive labor characterized the new life for this new class of urban poor. o Underclass scorned & ignored by society No rights – could not vote in elections or legally form unions Upper classes did not want to educate this underclass for fear of uprising – feared their own Revolution The feared Revolution never came to England o Successful reform parties

6 A Tale of Two Cities (TOTC) is about the French Revolution o Takes place some 70 years before Dickens was writing (1780s) o Presents the French Revolution as the natural or fated consequence of the social ills of the times. o The growing poverty in which the masses of people lived and the oppression they suffered at the hands of the aristocracy were the proximate causes for the civil unrest that led to the French Revolution. Originally serialized in All the Year Round o Weekly publications – immensely popular o Experimented with characterization, plot and theme o Maintains the suspense and interest by providing cliff-hangers at the end of many chapters

7 Dickens popularity crossed class lines o His writings were a topic of upper-class drawing room party conversation, as well as among the factory workers who could afford to buy the weekly serializations Faulted by critics for sentimentality and relying on unbelievable plot coincidences o But praised for creating real and moral characters BTW, Dickens and writers in the 1800s were looked to as moral examples

8 Began July 14, 1798 A mob stormed the Bastille, an infamous prison that housed political prisoners sent there by members of the aristocracy. The French celebrate Bastille Day like we celebrate July 4th

9 After the governments overthrow, a revolutionary committee of middle-class citizens governed Paris During this period, the peasants burned the castles of the lords in order to destroy the papers which contained the records of their manorial rights 1792: royalty abolished and the republic was proclaimed 1793: Reign of Terror begins, thousands of aristocrats killed by guillotine

10 Oppression of the masses by the aristocracy Working conditions that were no better than slavery Unfair taxes that put additional burden on those struggling to survive Hunger and poverty of the masses in stark contrast to the indulgent life of the aristocracy

11 Born February 7, 1812 in Portsmouth, England 2nd of 8 children Moved to London when he was 12 Father imprisoned for debts he could not pay o Charles forced to work in a factory Often felt hungry & abandoned – sister Frances was studying at the Royal Academy of Music Felt injustice – possible inspiration for Great Expectations and the essay Traveling Abroad

12 1 st love – Maria Beadnell o Rejected because of social class differences o Possible inspiration for Miss Havisham Married Catherine (Kate) Hogarth, daughter of newspaper editor, in 1836 o Had 10 kids then separated in 1858 Mistress - Ellen Ternan (actress and 27 years younger) o Actress and 27 years younger than him Age difference possible inspiration for Joe and Biddy from Great Expectations

13 Descriptions of suffering – chief endearing quality to readers o Realistic and empathetic Aspect of his life most reflected in TOTC is his personal relationships (wife and mistress) o Depiction of Lucie Manette and the behavior of Sydney Carton and Charles Darnay toward her reflects his attitude toward his mistress

14 Died of brain aneurysm in June 1870 Requested to be buried at home, but was disregarded due to his fame o Instead, buried in the Poets Corner of Westminster Abbey

15 Concerned with events in Paris and London before and during French Revolution Depicts the plight of the French peasantry demoralized by the French aristocracy in the years leading up to the revolution o The corresponding brutality demonstrated by the revolutionaries toward the former aristocrats in the early years of the revolution o Many unflattering social parallels with life in London Follows the lives of several protagonists through these events o Most notable - Charles Darnay and Sydney Carton Darnay is a French once-aristocrat who falls victim to the indiscriminate wrath of the revolution despite his virtuous nature Carton is an immoral British barrister who endeavors to redeem his ill-spent life out of his unrequited love for Darnay's wife, Lucie Manette

16 While the revolutions in America and France happened earlier, still great social tension in England Work conditions for the poor were horrid – resulting in strikes and violent clashes between police and workers TOTC can be considered a warning to British society of mid- 19th century o Dickens calls attention to the violence of the French Revolution o Shows how overthrowing government by violence leads to more violence o Revolutionaries often failed to see that Dickens was more concerned with portraying the death and destruction that accompany revolution than with endorsing a working class revolt

17 Order and Disorder o Ocean imagery o Chaos of Paris – Order of London Death and Resurrection o Prisons = grave Memory and Reminiscence o Takes place approx. 70 years before it was written o Memory is a trap Possible force for redemption

18 Setting o England and France Antithesis o It was the best of times, it was the worst of times… o Characters mirror and oppose each other Doppelganger o Charles Darnay & Sydney Carton – psychologically two sides of the same psyche?

19 Trumbils of the Revolution - These carts were used to transport the prisoners to the guillotine. Guillotine - The guillotine is a supposedly painless form of execution named after Dr. Guillotin, who first proposed it. Letres de cachet - These are referred to in the novel as blank forms of consignment, warrants for imprisonment used by nobles to sentence their enemies to prison.

20 The Reign of Terror - Beginning in 1793, this is the period when Marie Antoinette, thousands of other aristocrats, and suspected anti- revolutionaries are executed. The Law of the Suspected - This law permitted the revolutionaries a wide range of excuses for ordering executions. Carmagnole - This is a dance done to a revolutionary song and used to work the mob into a frenzy before the executions. Continental Congress - In America, in 1775, the Continental Congress sent a list of grievances to the British government.

21 Madame Veto avait promis, Madame Veto had promised Madame Veto avait promis. Madame Veto had promised. de faire égorger tout Paris, To cut everyone's throat in Paris. de faire égorger tout Paris. To cut everyone's throat in Paris. Mais son coup a manqué But she failed to do this, grâce à nos canonniers. Thanks to our cannon-bearers. Refrain : Refrain: Dansons la Carmagnole Let us dance the Carmagnole Vive le son, Long live the sound Vive le son. Long live the sound Dansons la Carmagnole Let us dance the Carmagnole Vive le son du canon. Long live the sound of the cannons. Monsieur Veto avait promis (bis) Mr. Veto had promised (repeat) D'être fidèle à son pays, (bis) To be loyal to his country, (repeat) Mais il y a manqué, But he failed to be, Ne faisons plus quartier. Let us show no mercy. Refrain Antoinette avait résolu (bis) Antoinette had decided (repeat) De nous faire tomber sur le cul; (bis) To drop us on our arses ; (repeat) Mais le coup a manqué But the plan was foiled Elle a le nez cassé. And she fell on her face.

22 Refrain Son Mari se croyant vainqueur, (bis) Her husband, thinking he was victorious, (repeat) Connaissait peu notre valeur, (bis) Little did he know our value, (repeat) Va, Louis, gros paour, Go, Louis, big crybaby, Du Temple dans la tour. From the Temple into the tower. Refrain Les Suisses avaient promis, (bis) The Swiss had promised, (repeat) Qu'ils feraient feu sur nos amis, (bis) That they would fire on our friends, (repeat) Mais comme ils ont sauté! But how they jumped! Comme ils ont tous dansé! How they all danced! Refrain Quand Antoinette vit la tour, (bis) When Antoinette saw the tower, (repeat) Elle voulut faire demi-tour, (bis) She wanted to turn back, (repeat) Elle avait mal au coeur She is sick at heart De se voir sans honneur To see herself without honor.

23 Historical Novel Caricature Irony o Dramatic Irony o Structural Irony o Verbal Irony Parallelism Personification Symbol Theme Foreshadowing Paradox Epithet Hyperbole

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