Presentation on theme: "BELLWORK In 3-5 sentences, explain the Brazilian Revolution."— Presentation transcript:
1BELLWORK In 3-5 sentences, explain the Brazilian Revolution. How are the revolutions in Latin America different than the U.S. Revolution?What is an absolute monarch?Who was Louis XIV? List three ways he abused his power (pg. 267)THINKER: The French Revolution starts when peasants stand up and revolt. What are some positive and negative effects of standing up against your government?
3Long-Term Factors:The Enlightenment: Encouraged freedom and social justiceThe American Revolution: An example of liberty and freedomSocial Problems: The Estates SystemPolitical Conflict: Unfair absolute monarchyEconomic Weakness: Expensive wars, Lavish spending by kings
4Vocabulary In your notes, define the following words: Estate Tithe BourgeoisieCoup d'état
5French Society: The Old Order Before 1789, France’s class system was made of ESTATES (orders of society) and all French people belonged to 1 of 3 estatesThe estates determined a person’s legal rights and status
6The First Estate Made up of clergy About 1% of the population Controlled 5 – 10% of land in FranceEnjoyed many privilegesDid not have to pay taxes
7The Second Estate Made up of the nobility About 2% of the population Owned 25% of land in FranceHeld high positions in the government and militaryOwned large estates and paid no taxesIncomes came mostly from peasants living and working on their land
8The Third EstateMade up of Middle Class (bourgeoisie), peasants, and artisansAbout 97% of populationMiddle Class (doctors, lawyers, merchants) were educated and wealthy, but had no prestige or privilegesLooked to Enlightenment philosophers that spoke about freedom and social justicePeasants owned 40% of land in France, but were forced to pay over half of their income to king, clergy and noblesMembers of this estate had no voice in government
9Call For Change:In 1774, King Louis XVI and wife Marie Antoinette came to powerThe king was faced with severe debt and wanted to tax the First and Second EstatesThe two estates refused to pay the taxesThe king was forced to call the Estates-General in 1789
10The Estates-GeneralThe Estates-General was made up of delegates from each estate and each estate was given I voteWith this type of voting, the clergy and nobility would vote together and always overrule the Third EstateThe Third Estate felt the vote should be based on the number of people in the estate, thus giving them the majority vote
11The Tennis Court OathFearing a revolt, the king locked the Third Estate out of their meeting place in the Estates-GeneralThe Third Estate then declared themselves the National Assembly and began meeting in an indoor tennis courtHere, they took an oath called the Tennis Court Oath—refusing to disband until they had a written constitution for France
12The Storming of the Bastille The Bastille (a Paris prison) symbolized injustices of the monarchyJuly 14, 1789 a mob surrounded the Bastille in an attempt to steal weapons needed to defend the National AssemblyThe soldiers killed 98 rioters and the rioters released 7 prisoners
13The Storming of the Bastille This outbreak led to the formation of a Revolutionary Government in ParisThe Storming of the Bastille led to a wave of violence in FranceThis event is considered the beginning of the French Revolution
15CLOSURE Describe the Estate System in France. Why did Louis XVI call the Estates-General? How did the third estate feel about this?What was the Tennis Court Oath?Why did a mob storm the Bastille? What was the outcome?
16Discussion Why did people dislike Louis XVI? Why did people dislike Marie Antoinette?
17BELLWORK – pd. 2Why did the Third Estate dislike the French government?What was the Estates-General? How did they make decisions?How did Louis XVI propose to get France out of debt? Was it successful?Why did Louis XVI lock the Third Estate out of the Estates-General?How did the Third Estate respond to being locked out of the Estates-General?THINKER: If the First and Second Estate were so wealthy, why couldn’t they just pay taxes too? Why was it such a big problem to tax the First and Second Estates?
18Marie Antoinette Born in 1755 to the Emperor and Empress of Austria. After the Seven Years’ War, France needed to cement their alliance with Austria, so Louis decided to take an Austrian wife.When Marie Antoinette was 12, her entire family contracted small pox.The disease killed her brother and two sisters – who was going to marry Louis?Two years later, Louis paid 200,000 crowns ($11,000) for Marie’s hand in marriage.Immediately, French citizens did not support the marriage because there remained high tensions between Austria and France.
20Marie at age 13; this portrait was sent to Louis to see if he approved
21Marie AntoinetteMarie and Louis had four children together: Marie-Therese Charlotte and Dauphin Louis Joseph.After Louis’ birth, fighting between Austria and France broke out
22This controversial portrait was considered “improper” for a queen
23Marie Antoinette’s declining popularity Louis refused to allow his wife to participate in politicsAustrian family was disappointedFirst son (Louis) was very ill, but Marie had a second sonFrance was in a huge economic downturn; could not finance warFrench citizens felt she sided with AustriaParliament was dissolvedSpent a lot of money on diamonds, clothing, palaces, and art.Famous for the saying “Let them eat cake!”
25Marie AntoinetteDuring the French Revolution, Louis and Marie were blamed for the majority of the country’s problems.A mob broke into their palaceMarie became a widow in January 1793 when her husband was executedBy this time, Marie’s health was deteriorating – she had tuberculosis and cancer.Marie was tried by the Revolutionary Tribunal and found guilty of treason.She was executed in October 1793, at the age of 37.
27HomeworkTwo of the main causes of the French Revolution were the estates system, and lavish spending by the monarchy.To review over these causes, you are going to complete a worksheet.One side focuses on the characteristics of the estate systemThe other side is a profile of Marie Antoinette