Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9 The spine: Objectives"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 9 The spine: Objectives Explain how anatomical structure affects movement capabilities of the spineIdentify factors influencing relative mobility and stability of different regions of the spineExplain the ways in which spine is adapted to carry out its biomechanical functionsExplain the relationship between muscle location and the nature and effectiveness of muscle action in the trunkDescribe the biomechanical contributions to common injuries of the spine
2 The Spine: Outline Structure Muscles and movements Low Back Pain Strengthening exercisesLifting guidelinesCommon low pack problemsWebSite for spine and spinal problems:MMG - Patient Education back TOCIntroductory problems, p 305: 1,6,7,9,10Additional problems, p 306: 1,2,3,5,8
7 The Spine: Muscles Abdominal muscles (flexors) Spinal extensors Rectus abdominisExternal and internal obliquesSpinal extensorsSplenius cervicis and capitis (cervical)Erector spinae (lumbar and thoracic)Quadratus lumborum (lumbar)
15 Lifting recommendations (1)bend knees , (2) keep weight close to hips
16 Lifting recommendations (3) Avoid lifting while twisting and asymmetrical frontal plane loading of the trunk– it places 3 times more stress on the spine (4) Avoid rapid, jerking motion while liftingLifting recommendations
17 Stress FracturesMost common type of vertebral fracture is in pars interarticularisSpondylolysisSpondylolisthesisSpondylolysis and spondylolisthesis don’t tend to heal with timeCommon with sports involving repeated hyperextension of the lumbar spine.
18 Common low back problems Spondylolisis – separation of vertebraSpondylolisthesis – forward movement ofvertebral bodyDisc degeneration
19 Disc Herniations Cause of 1-5% back pain cases Protrusion of part of nucleus pulposus from the annulus.Traumatic or stress related.Common sites: between 5th-6th and 6th-7th cervical vertebrae and 4th-5th lumbar and 5th lumbar and 1st sacral.Sensory nerves supplying anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments generate pain signals.
20 Whiplash Injuries Relatively common injury to cervical region. Usually from automobile collisions, where neck undergoes sudden acceleration and deceleration.Symptoms:Neck pain, muscle pain, pain or numbness radiating from neck to shoulders, arms, hands and a headache (present in 50-60% of most cases)
21 Low Back Pain75-80% of population will experience it at some time in their lifeMechanical stress plays a significant roleChildrenRelative Stability of Spine60% of cases is idiopathic (unknown origin)Abdominal exercises help in treatment
22 Two common causes of low back pain Illustrations below are from: MMG - Patient Education back TOCCompressive, or neurogenic:Symptoms are referred due toSpinal nerve compressionMechanical - localized pain due toDamage to facets, discs, and/or softtissue