Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9 The spine: Objectives"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 9 The spine: Objectives Explain how anatomical structure affects movement capabilities of the spineIdentify factors influencing relative mobility and stability of different regions of the spineExplain the ways in which spine is adapted to carry out its biomechanical functionsExplain the relationship between muscle location and the nature and effectiveness of muscle action in the trunkDescribe the biomechanical contributions to common injuries of the spine
2 The Spine: Outline Structure Muscles and movements Low Back Pain Strengthening exercisesLifting guidelinesCommon low pack problemsWebsite for spinal problemsStudy questions for exam (do not submit, just do on your own):Introductory problems, p 305: 1,6,7,9,10Additional problems, p 306: 1,5,8
15 Lifting recommendations (1)bend knees , (2) keep weight close to hips
16 Lifting recommendations (3) Avoid lifting while twisting and asymmetrical frontal plane loading of the trunk– it places 3 times more stress on the spine (question #9, p 205) (4) Avoid rapid, jerking motion while liftingLifting recommendations
17 Common Spinal Injuries Lumbar spinal injury is by far the most prevalent of all areas of the spineLow back pain is most common and most expensive injury in work placeLow back pain isusually related tomechanical stress60% of cases areIdeopathicMMG – Websitefor musculoskeletaldisorders
18 Two common causes of low back pain Compressive, or neurogenic:Symptoms are referred due toSpinal nerve compressionMechanical - localized pain due toDamage to facets, discs, and/or softtissue
19 Stress FracturesMost common type of vertebral fracture is in pars interarticularisSpondylolysisSpondylolisthesisSpondylolysis and spondylolisthesis don’t tend to heal with timeCommon with sports involving repeated hyperextension of the lumbar spine.
20 Common low back problems Spondylolisis – separation of vertebraSpondylolisthesis – forward movement ofvertebral bodyDisc degeneration
21 Disc Herniations Cause of 1-5% back pain cases Protrusion of part of nucleus pulposus from the annulus.Traumatic or stress related.Common sites: between 5th-6th and 6th-7th cervical vertebrae and 4th-5th lumbar and 5th lumbar and 1st sacral.Sensory nerves supplying anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments generate pain signals.