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1 Chapter 2 Matter and Change. 2 What is Matter? Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass. Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Chapter 2 Matter and Change. 2 What is Matter? Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass. Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Chapter 2 Matter and Change

2 2 What is Matter? Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass. Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass. Mass is the amount of matter in an object. Mass is the amount of matter in an object. Mass is resistance to change in motion along a smooth and level surface. Mass is resistance to change in motion along a smooth and level surface. Examples Examples

3 3 Types of Matter Substance- a particular kind of matter - pure Substance- a particular kind of matter - pure Mixture- more than one kind of matter Mixture- more than one kind of matter

4 4 Properties Words that describe matter (adjectives) Words that describe matter (adjectives) Physical Properties- a property that can be observed and measured without changing the substance. Physical Properties- a property that can be observed and measured without changing the substance. Chemical Properties- a property that can only be observed by changing the type of substance. Chemical Properties- a property that can only be observed by changing the type of substance.

5 5 Properties Words that describe matter (adjectives) Words that describe matter (adjectives) Extensive Properties- only depends on the amount of matter Extensive Properties- only depends on the amount of matter Intensive Properties- only depends on the type of matter, not the amount Intensive Properties- only depends on the type of matter, not the amount Used to identify a substance Used to identify a substance

6 6 States of matter Solid- mater that can not flow and has definite volume. Solid- mater that can not flow and has definite volume. Liquid- definite volume but takes the shape of its container (flows). Liquid- definite volume but takes the shape of its container (flows). Gas- a substance without definite volume or shape and can flow. Gas- a substance without definite volume or shape and can flow. Vapor- a substance that is currently a gas but normally is a liquid or solid at room temperature. Vapor- a substance that is currently a gas but normally is a liquid or solid at room temperature.

7 7 States of Matter Solid Liquid Gas Definite Volume? YES NO Definite Shape? YES NO Temp. increase Small Expans. Large Expans. Com- pressible? NO YES

8 8 Solid Liquid Gas Melt Evaporate Condense Freeze

9 9 States of Matter There are more There are more Plasma Plasma –high temperature low pressure –electrons separate from nucleus –Most common in the universe More at very low temp More at very low temp –Bose- Einstein condensate –Quantum superfluids

10 10 Another Way to Change States Pressure Pressure For some substances it will turn solids to liquids For some substances it will turn solids to liquids For others it will turn liquids to solids For others it will turn liquids to solids –Silly putty Silly puttySilly putty Will turn gas to liquid- Will turn gas to liquid- –Compressor in refrigerator and AC

11 11 Physical Changes A change that changes appearances, without changing the composition. A change that changes appearances, without changing the composition. Examples? Examples? Chemical changes - a change where a new form of matter is formed. Chemical changes - a change where a new form of matter is formed. Also called chemical reaction. Also called chemical reaction. Examples? Examples? Not phase changes Not phase changes –Ice is still water.

12 12 Mixtures Made up of two substances. Made up of two substances. Variable composition. Variable composition. Heterogeneous- mixture is not the same from place to place. Heterogeneous- mixture is not the same from place to place. Chocolate chip cookie, gravel, soil. Chocolate chip cookie, gravel, soil. Homogeneous- same composition throughout. Homogeneous- same composition throughout. Kool-aid, air. Kool-aid, air. Every part keeps its properties. Every part keeps its properties.

13 13 Separating mixtures Only a physical change- no new matter Only a physical change- no new matter Filtration- separate solids from liquids with a barrier Filtration- separate solids from liquids with a barrier Distillation- separate because of different boiling points Distillation- separate because of different boiling points –Heat mixture –Catch vapor in cooled area Chromatography- different substances are attracted to paper or gel, so move at different speeds Chromatography- different substances are attracted to paper or gel, so move at different speeds Chromatography-

14 14 Chromatography

15 15 Phases A part of a sample with uniform composition, therefore uniform properties A part of a sample with uniform composition, therefore uniform properties Homogeneous- 1 phase Homogeneous- 1 phase Heterogeneous – more than 1 Heterogeneous – more than 1

16 16 Solutions Homogeneous mixture Homogeneous mixture Mixed molecule by molecule Mixed molecule by molecule Can occur between any state of matter. Can occur between any state of matter. Solid in liquid- Kool-aid Solid in liquid- Kool-aid Liquid in liquid- antifreeze Liquid in liquid- antifreeze Gas in gas- air Gas in gas- air Solid in solid - brass Solid in solid - brass Liquid in gas- water vapor Liquid in gas- water vapor

17 17 Solutions Like all mixtures, they keep the properties of the components. Like all mixtures, they keep the properties of the components. Can be separated by physical means Can be separated by physical means Not easily separated- can be separated without creating anything new. Not easily separated- can be separated without creating anything new.

18 18 Substances Elements- simplest kind of matter Elements- simplest kind of matter Cannot be broken down into simpler Cannot be broken down into simpler All one kind of atom. All one kind of atom. Compounds are substances that can be broken down by chemical methods Compounds are substances that can be broken down by chemical methods When they are broken down, the pieces have completely different properties than the compound. Salt When they are broken down, the pieces have completely different properties than the compound. SaltSalt Made of molecules- two or more atoms stuck together Made of molecules- two or more atoms stuck together

19 19 Compound or Mixture CompoundMixture One kind of piece- Molecules More than one kind - Molecule or atoms Making is a chemical change Making is a physical change Only one kindVariable composition

20 20 Which is it? Element Compound Mixture

21 21 Chemical Reactions Another name for chemical change Another name for chemical change When one or more substances are changed into new substances. When one or more substances are changed into new substances. Reactants- stuff you start with Reactants- stuff you start with Products- What you make Products- What you make NEW PROPERTIES NEW PROPERTIES Because each substance has its own properties Because each substance has its own properties

22 22 Indications of a chemical reaction Energy absorbed or released Energy absorbed or released Color change Color change Odor change Odor change Precipitate- solid that separates from solution Precipitate- solid that separates from solution Precipitate- Precipitate- Not easily reversed Not easily reversed Only clues not certainty Only clues not certainty

23 23 Chemical symbols There are 116 elements There are 116 elements Each has a 1 or two letter symbol Each has a 1 or two letter symbol First letter always capitalized second never First letter always capitalized second never Dont need to memorize Dont need to memorize Some from Latin or other languages Some from Latin or other languages

24 24 Chemical symbols Used to write chemical formulas Used to write chemical formulas Subscripts tell us how many of each atom Subscripts tell us how many of each atom H 2 O H 2 O C 3 H 8 C 3 H 8 HBrO 3 HBrO 3

25 25 Conservation of Mass Mass can not be created or destroyed in ordinary (not nuclear) changes. Mass can not be created or destroyed in ordinary (not nuclear) changes. All the mass can be accounted for. All the mass can be accounted for. Mass at the start = mass at end Mass at the start = mass at end

26 26 Energy The ability to do work. The ability to do work. Work - cause a change or move an object. Work - cause a change or move an object. Many types- all can be changed into the other. Many types- all can be changed into the other.

27 27 Types of energy Potential- stored energy Potential- stored energy Kinetic Energy- energy something has because its moving Kinetic Energy- energy something has because its moving Heat- the energy that moves because of a temperature difference. Heat- the energy that moves because of a temperature difference. Chemical energy- energy released or absorbed in a chemical change. Chemical energy- energy released or absorbed in a chemical change. Electrical energy - energy of moving charges Electrical energy - energy of moving charges

28 28 Types of Energy Radiant Energy- energy that can travel through empty space (light, UV, infrared, radio) Radiant Energy- energy that can travel through empty space (light, UV, infrared, radio) Nuclear Energy – Energy from changing the nucleus of atoms Nuclear Energy – Energy from changing the nucleus of atoms All types of energy can be converted into others. All types of energy can be converted into others. If you trace the source far enough back, you will end up at nuclear energy. If you trace the source far enough back, you will end up at nuclear energy.

29 29 Conservation of Energy Energy can be neither created or destroyed in ordinary changes (not nuclear), it can only change form. Energy can be neither created or destroyed in ordinary changes (not nuclear), it can only change form. Its not just a good idea, its the law. Its not just a good idea, its the law.

30 30 What about nuclear? E = mc 2 E = mc 2 energy = mass x (speed of light) 2 energy = mass x (speed of light) 2 speed of light = 3 x 10 8 speed of light = 3 x 10 8 A little mass can make a lot of energy A little mass can make a lot of energy Law of Conservation of Mass - Energy the total of the mass and energy remains the same in any change Law of Conservation of Mass - Energy the total of the mass and energy remains the same in any change


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