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Matter and Change Mrs. Harvey - Chemistry - GHS - 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "Matter and Change Mrs. Harvey - Chemistry - GHS - 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 Matter and Change Mrs. Harvey - Chemistry - GHS

2 What is Matter? Matter- anything that has mass and takes up space. Matter- anything that has mass and takes up space. Mass- measure of the amount of matter Mass- measure of the amount of matter NOT Weight – it is due to gravity, and changes from location to location; mass is always constant. NOT Weight – it is due to gravity, and changes from location to location; mass is always constant. Mrs. Harvey - Chemistry - GHS

3 Properties Physical Properties- a property that can be observed and measured without changing the composition. Examples- color, hardness, m.p., b.p. Examples- color, hardness, m.p., b.p. Chemical Properties- a property that can only be observed by changing the composition of the material. Mrs. Harvey - Chemistry - GHS

4 Physical Change A change in a substance that does not involve a change in the identity of the substance. Example: Phase Changes Mrs. Harvey - Chemistry - GHS

5 Phase Differences Solid Solid – definite volume and shape; particles packed in fixed positions. Liquid Liquid – definite volume but indefinite shape; particles close together but not in fixed positions Gas Gas – neither definite volume nor definite shape; particles are at great distances from one another Plasma – high temperature, ionized phase of matter as found on the sun. Mrs. Harvey - Chemistry - GHS

6 Three Phases Mrs. Harvey - Chemistry - GHS

7 Copper Phases - Solid Mrs. Harvey - Chemistry - GHS

8 Copper Phases - Liquid Mrs. Harvey - Chemistry - GHS

9 Copper Phases – Vapor (gas) Mrs. Harvey - Chemistry - GHS

10 States of Matter Solid Liquid Gas Definite Volume? YES NO Definite Shape? YES NO Temp. increase Small Expans. Large Expans. Com- pressible? NO YES Mrs. Harvey - Chemistry - GHS

11 Solid Liquid Gas Melt Evaporate Condense Freeze SUBLIMATION Mrs. Harvey - Chemistry - GHS

12 Chemical Change A change in which one or more substances are converted into different substances. Heat and light are often evidence of a chemical change. Mrs. Harvey - Chemistry - GHS

13 Types of Matter Substance- pure matter that is uniform (all the same) and has a definite composition (examples are elements & compounds) Substance- pure matter that is uniform (all the same) and has a definite composition (examples are elements & compounds) Mixture- more than one kind of matter; has a variable composition Mixture- more than one kind of matter; has a variable composition Mrs. Harvey - Chemistry - GHS

14 Classification of Matter Mrs. Harvey - Chemistry - GHS

15 Mixtures Physical blend of at least two substances; variable composition Physical blend of at least two substances; variable composition Heterogeneous- mixture is not uniform in composition Heterogeneous- mixture is not uniform in composition Chocolate chip cookie, gravel, soil. Chocolate chip cookie, gravel, soil. Homogeneous- same composition throughout; called “solutions” Homogeneous- same composition throughout; called “solutions” Kool-aid, air, salt water Kool-aid, air, salt water Every part keeps it’s own properties. Every part keeps it’s own properties. Mrs. Harvey - Chemistry - GHS

16 Separation of a Heterogeneous Mixture The constituents of the mixture retain their identity and may be separated by physical means. Mrs. Harvey - Chemistry - GHS

17 Solutions Homogeneous mixture Homogeneous mixture Mixed molecule by molecule Mixed molecule by molecule Can occur between any state of matter Can occur between any state of matter gas in gas; liquid in gas; gas in liquid; solid in liquid; solid in solid (alloys), etc. gas in gas; liquid in gas; gas in liquid; solid in liquid; solid in solid (alloys), etc. Mrs. Harvey - Chemistry - GHS

18 Solutions Like all mixtures, they keep the properties of the components. Like all mixtures, they keep the properties of the components. Some can be separated easily by physical means: rocks and marbles, iron filings and sulfur Some can be separated easily by physical means: rocks and marbles, iron filings and sulfur Other methods: distillation- takes advantage of different boiling points Other methods: distillation- takes advantage of different boiling points Mrs. Harvey - Chemistry - GHS

19 Separation of a Homogeneous Mixture Distillation Mrs. Harvey - Chemistry - GHS

20 Classification of Matter Mrs. Harvey - Chemistry - GHS

21 The smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element Element A pure substance made of only one kind of atom Atom Mrs. Harvey - Chemistry - GHS

22 A substance that is made from the atoms of two or more elements that are chemically bonded. Sucrose – C 12 H 22 O 11 Sucrose is also known as table sugar, and is used to make Gummy Bears! Compound Mrs. Harvey - Chemistry - GHS

23 Separation of a Compound The Electrolysis of water Water  Hydrogen + Oxygen H 2 O  H 2 + O 2 Reactant  Products Compounds must be separated by chemical means. With the application of electricity, water can be separated into its elements Mrs. Harvey - Chemistry - GHS

24 Compound or Mixture CompoundMixture Made of one kind of material Made of more than one kind of material Made by a chemical change Made by a physical change Definite composition Variable composition Mrs. Harvey - Chemistry - GHS


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