2 ORGANIZATION Consists of: Lymph Lymphatic vessels Lymphoid tissues and organsLymphocytes + phagocytes + other cells
3 FUNCTIONS Primary function: To produce, maintain and distribute lymphocytes for body defense mechanismsSecondary function:To return fluid into the general circulation so that normal blood volume is maintainedTo distribute hormones, nutrients and waste products from tissues of origin to the general circulation
4 The systemThe lymphatic system is filled with millions of one-way valves, which allows the lymph fluid to flow in only one direction - usually upward away from gravity.The lymphatic system collects toxins in the bodyIf this flow is impaired, the fluid becomes thick and toxic.
5 LYMPHATIC VESSELSsmall amount of interstitial fluid that remains is picked up by tiny vessels called lymph capillaries.lymph capillaries wall very porous
6 LYMPHATIC VESSELSlymph capillaries drain into still larger vessels that make up the lymphatic system.flow through the lymph vessels is quite slowLymphatic vessels carry lymph, a colorless liquid, throughout the body. Along lymph vessels are small bean-shaped glandular nodules called lymph nodes.
7 LYMPHATIC VESSELSAfferent lymphatic vessels carry lymph into the nodes where waste products and some of the fluid are filtered outEfferent lymphatic vessels carry lymph out of the node to continue its return to the circulatory system.
8 BLOCKAGE OF THE LYMPH VESSELS Elephantiasis. Elephantiasis is a condition of extreme edema that occurs when lymph vessels become blocked by filarial worms. Here the left leg is swollen with the fluids accumulated in the tissues as a result of the blockage.
9 LYMPHATIC CIRCULATION All the lymph collected fromthe entire left side of the body,the digestive tract andthe right side of the lower part of the bodyflows into a single major vessel, the thoracic duct.
11 The Left Drainage Area removes lymph from the: Left side of the head and neckLeft arm and the left upper quadrantLower trunkBoth legs
12 The Right Drainage Area removes lymph from the: Right side of the head and neckRight armUpper right quadrant of the body.Lymph from this area flows into the right lymphatic duct. This duct returns the lymph to the circulatory system by draining into the right subclavian vein.
13 LYMPHLymph originates as blood plasma lost from the circulatory system, which leaks out into the surrounding tissueswithin the lymphatic system the fluid is called lymph, and has almost the same composition as the original interstitial fluid.
14 LYMPH The production of lymph is increased by increased blood pressure in the capillaries and/ora decreased concentration of plasma proteins (such as occurs in prolonged malnutrition).The lymphatic system may be unable to handle the increased volumeof lymph, and it may accumulate in the tissues and distend them.This condition is known as edema.
16 LYMPHATIC ORGANSTonsil: clusters of lymphatic tissues just under the mucous membranes that line the nose, mouth, and pharynx.Nasopharyngeal tonsils / adenoids: at the back of the nose, at the meet of the back of throat
17 LYMPHATIC ORGANSPeyer patch: lymphoid tissue on the visceral surface of the small intestine.
18 LYMPHOID ORGANSSpleen: it is similar to a lymph node in shape and structure but it is much larger
19 LYMPHOID ORGANSThymus: a soft organ with two lobes that is located anterior to the ascending aorta and posterior to the sternum.
20 LYMPH NODES Lymph nodes are scattered throughout the lymphatic system groinarmpitsabdomen andneck.Lymph nodes also manufactureantibodies andlymphocytesThese contain cavities - called sinuses - into which the lymph flowsThe walls of the sinuses are lined with phagocytic cellsfiltering mechanismheavy infection - "swollen glands".
22 LYMPHOCYTESA lymphocyte is a type of white blood cell present in the bloodlymphocytes help provide a specific response to attack the invading organismsLymphocytes help to protect the body against tumors (tissues that grow more rapidly than normal)lymphocytes can also cause the rejection of tissues during organ transplants because they interpret these tissues as foreign invaders
23 LYMPHOCYTESLymphocytes are formed in lymphatic tissue throughout the bodylymphatic tissue include the spleen, thymus, tonsils, and lymph nodesLymphocytes are also made by fetal stem cells and develop in the bone marrowAfter the lymphocytes are formed, they are released into the circulating blood.
24 LYMPHOCYTES two types of lymphocytes T cells and B cellsdiffer in function and the molecules that are on their surface15% to 40% of white blood cells are lymphocytes
25 In general, the lymphatic system: Drains fluid back into the general circulationFilters lymphFight infections