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Lymphatic System. The lymphatic system is a complex network of connective tissue that is composed of: Lymphoid organs Lymph nodes Lymph ducts Lymph vessels.

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Presentation on theme: "Lymphatic System. The lymphatic system is a complex network of connective tissue that is composed of: Lymphoid organs Lymph nodes Lymph ducts Lymph vessels."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lymphatic System

2 The lymphatic system is a complex network of connective tissue that is composed of: Lymphoid organs Lymph nodes Lymph ducts Lymph vessels Lymph capillaries The lymphatic system is a complex network of connective tissue that is composed of: Lymphoid organs Lymph nodes Lymph ducts Lymph vessels Lymph capillaries

3 The accessory lymphoid tissue of the lymphoid organ system are: Thymus Spleen Lymph nodes Peyer’s patches Adenoids Tonsils Vermiform appendix Red bone marrow The accessory lymphoid tissue of the lymphoid organ system are: Thymus Spleen Lymph nodes Peyer’s patches Adenoids Tonsils Vermiform appendix Red bone marrow Lymphatic System

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5 The most important functions of the lymphatic system are: Maintenance of fluid balance in the internal environment – Collects and returns interstitial fluid, including plasma protein to the blood to help maintain fluid balance Immunity –To defend the body against disease by producing lymphocytes To absorb lipids from the intestine The most important functions of the lymphatic system are: Maintenance of fluid balance in the internal environment – Collects and returns interstitial fluid, including plasma protein to the blood to help maintain fluid balance Immunity –To defend the body against disease by producing lymphocytes To absorb lipids from the intestine Lymphatic System

6 The lymphatic system transports a watery clear fluid called lymph fluid Distributes immune cells and other factors throughout the body Interacts with the blood circulatory system to drain fluid from cells and tissues The lymphatic system transports a watery clear fluid called lymph fluid Distributes immune cells and other factors throughout the body Interacts with the blood circulatory system to drain fluid from cells and tissues Lymphatic System

7 Lymphatic Vessels

8 From one-third to two-thirds of the plasma entering a capillary passes into the tissue space. The cells in the tissue space are bathed in this interstitial or extracellular fluid (ECF) that has been filtered from the blood. In the tissue space is where cells acquire all their needs and deposit all their products. Although most of this interstitial fluid returns to the venule end of the capillary, some does not. From one-third to two-thirds of the plasma entering a capillary passes into the tissue space. The cells in the tissue space are bathed in this interstitial or extracellular fluid (ECF) that has been filtered from the blood. In the tissue space is where cells acquire all their needs and deposit all their products. Although most of this interstitial fluid returns to the venule end of the capillary, some does not. Lymphatic System

9 The small amount of interstitial fluid that remains is picked up by tiny vessels called lymph capillaries. The cells forming the walls of the lymph capillaries are loosely fitted together making the wall very porous. Even the large serum proteins that filtered through the capillary wall pass easily from the tissue space into the interior of the lymph capillary. The lymph capillaries of the intestinal villi, called lacteals, also pick up fat droplets. The small amount of interstitial fluid that remains is picked up by tiny vessels called lymph capillaries. The cells forming the walls of the lymph capillaries are loosely fitted together making the wall very porous. Even the large serum proteins that filtered through the capillary wall pass easily from the tissue space into the interior of the lymph capillary. The lymph capillaries of the intestinal villi, called lacteals, also pick up fat droplets. Lymphatic System

10 The lymph capillaries drain into still larger vessels that make up the lymphatic system. The flow through the lymph vessels is slow. Like blood in the veins, contraction of skeletal muscles compresses the lymph vessels and squeezes the lymph. Like the return of blood in the veins, the lymph can flow only in one direction because of valves in the vessels. The lymph capillaries drain into still larger vessels that make up the lymphatic system. The flow through the lymph vessels is slow. Like blood in the veins, contraction of skeletal muscles compresses the lymph vessels and squeezes the lymph. Like the return of blood in the veins, the lymph can flow only in one direction because of valves in the vessels. Lymphatic System

11 All the lymph collected from the entire Left side of the body Digestive tract and Right side of the lower part of the body The lymph then flows into a single major vessel, the thoracic duct. All the lymph collected from the entire Left side of the body Digestive tract and Right side of the lower part of the body The lymph then flows into a single major vessel, the thoracic duct. Lymphatic System

12 The thoracic duct empties about 100 ml of lymph every hour into the left subclavian vein. The lymph in the right side of the head, neck, and chest is collected by the right lymph duct and empties into the right subclavian vein. The thoracic duct empties about 100 ml of lymph every hour into the left subclavian vein. The lymph in the right side of the head, neck, and chest is collected by the right lymph duct and empties into the right subclavian vein. Lymphatic System

13 The production of lymph is increased by increased blood pressure in the capillaries and/or a decreased concentration of plasma proteins—such as occurs in prolonged malnutrition. The lymphatic system may be unable to handle the increased volume of lymph, and it may accumulate in the tissues and distend them. This condition is known as edema. The production of lymph is increased by increased blood pressure in the capillaries and/or a decreased concentration of plasma proteins—such as occurs in prolonged malnutrition. The lymphatic system may be unable to handle the increased volume of lymph, and it may accumulate in the tissues and distend them. This condition is known as edema. Lymphatic System and Edema

14 Lymph nodes act as filters, with an internal honeycomb of reticular connective tissue that traps foreign particles. They are bean shaped From a few millimeters to about 1-2 cm in size Humans have approximately lymph nodes When the body is fighting an infection, lymphocytes multiply rapidly and produce a characteristic swelling of the lymph nodes. Lymph nodes act as filters, with an internal honeycomb of reticular connective tissue that traps foreign particles. They are bean shaped From a few millimeters to about 1-2 cm in size Humans have approximately lymph nodes When the body is fighting an infection, lymphocytes multiply rapidly and produce a characteristic swelling of the lymph nodes. Lymphatic System: Lymph Nodes

15 Lymph nodes contain cavities, called sinuses, into which the lymph flows. The walls of the sinuses are lined with phagocytic cells, which engulf any foreign particles like bacteria. Tests have demonstrated that over 99% of the bacteria carried into a node are screened out before the lymph leaves the node on its return to the blood. This filtering mechanism is one of the most important body defenses against infectious disease. When combating a heavy infection, the lymph nodes enlarge producing "swollen glands." Lymph nodes contain cavities, called sinuses, into which the lymph flows. The walls of the sinuses are lined with phagocytic cells, which engulf any foreign particles like bacteria. Tests have demonstrated that over 99% of the bacteria carried into a node are screened out before the lymph leaves the node on its return to the blood. This filtering mechanism is one of the most important body defenses against infectious disease. When combating a heavy infection, the lymph nodes enlarge producing "swollen glands." Lymphatic System: Lymph Nodes

16 Several hundred lymph nodes are scattered throughout the body especially in the Groin Armpits Abdomen Neck Several hundred lymph nodes are scattered throughout the body especially in the Groin Armpits Abdomen Neck Lymphatic System: Lymph Nodes

17 Lymph nodes manufacture Antibodies Lymphocytes which then enter the blood at the subclavian veins. Lymph nodes manufacture Antibodies Lymphocytes which then enter the blood at the subclavian veins. Lymphatic System: Lymph Nodes

18 Lymph Node

19 Lymph movement occurs slowly with low pressure due to peristalsis, valves, and the milking action of skeletal muscles. Like veins, lymph travels through vessels in one way only, due to semilunar valves. Lymph movement occurs slowly with low pressure due to peristalsis, valves, and the milking action of skeletal muscles. Like veins, lymph travels through vessels in one way only, due to semilunar valves. Lymphatic System

20 The lymphatic system contains immune cells called lymphocytes. They protect the body against antigens (viruses, bacteria, etc.) that invade the body Lymphocytes collect and destroy antigens and pathogens The lymphatic system contains immune cells called lymphocytes. They protect the body against antigens (viruses, bacteria, etc.) that invade the body Lymphocytes collect and destroy antigens and pathogens Lymphatic System Lymphocytes

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22 The lymphatic system also absorbs fatty acids and transports fat, as chyle to the circulatory system. Chyle is a milky fluid consisting of lymph and emulsified fats or free fatty acids (FFAs). Formed in the small intestine during digestion of ingested fatty foods Taken up by lymph vessels known as lacteals Passed to the bloodstream through the thoracic duct Lacteals are located in the lining of the GI tract. The lymphatic system also absorbs fatty acids and transports fat, as chyle to the circulatory system. Chyle is a milky fluid consisting of lymph and emulsified fats or free fatty acids (FFAs). Formed in the small intestine during digestion of ingested fatty foods Taken up by lymph vessels known as lacteals Passed to the bloodstream through the thoracic duct Lacteals are located in the lining of the GI tract. Lymphatic System and Fat Transport

23 Lacteals The lacteals are lymphatic capillaries that absorbs dietary fats in the villi of the small intestine.

24 Chyle is composed of fat globules that give it a milky appearance Has a thin protein coating Is a micron or less in size—there are about 25,000 microns to an inch After a meal it takes two to three hours for fat to be absorbed from the small intestine and travel through ever larger lymph channels. Chyle is composed of fat globules that give it a milky appearance Has a thin protein coating Is a micron or less in size—there are about 25,000 microns to an inch After a meal it takes two to three hours for fat to be absorbed from the small intestine and travel through ever larger lymph channels. Lymphatic System and Chyle

25 Lymph originates as blood plasma that leaks from the capillaries becoming interstitial fluid that fills the space between individual cells of tissue. Plasma is forced out of the capillaries— filtration Forced back in—absorption Due to interactions of: Hydrostatic pressure—movement out of the capillaries) Oncotic pressure—movement into the capillaries Lymph originates as blood plasma that leaks from the capillaries becoming interstitial fluid that fills the space between individual cells of tissue. Plasma is forced out of the capillaries— filtration Forced back in—absorption Due to interactions of: Hydrostatic pressure—movement out of the capillaries) Oncotic pressure—movement into the capillaries Lymphatic System and Lymph

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27 Because lymph carries lipids it also carries lipid-soluble vitamins absorbed from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Since there is no active pump in the lymph system, there is no back- pressure produced. The lymphatic vessels, like veins, have one-way valves that prevent backflow. Because lymph carries lipids it also carries lipid-soluble vitamins absorbed from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Since there is no active pump in the lymph system, there is no back- pressure produced. The lymphatic vessels, like veins, have one-way valves that prevent backflow. Lymphatic System and Fat Transport

28 Lymphatic function supports every other system in the body including: The immune system Digestive system Detoxification Nervous system Poor lymph health contributes to many conditions from cellulite to cancer. Lymphatic function supports every other system in the body including: The immune system Digestive system Detoxification Nervous system Poor lymph health contributes to many conditions from cellulite to cancer. Lymphatic System

29 Lymph is an alkaline fluid (pH > 7.0) that is usually clear, transparent, and colorless. It flows in the lymphatic vessels and bathes tissues and organs in its protective covering. There are no RBCs in lymph and it has a lower protein content than blood. Like blood, it is slightly heavier than water. Lymph is an alkaline fluid (pH > 7.0) that is usually clear, transparent, and colorless. It flows in the lymphatic vessels and bathes tissues and organs in its protective covering. There are no RBCs in lymph and it has a lower protein content than blood. Like blood, it is slightly heavier than water. Lymphatic System

30 Blood constitutes about 7% of the body's total weight. Blood flows from the heart into arteries, then to capillaries, and returns to the heart through veins. All blood cells are manufactured by stem cells, which live mainly in the bone marrow, by a process called hematopoiesis. Blood constitutes about 7% of the body's total weight. Blood flows from the heart into arteries, then to capillaries, and returns to the heart through veins. All blood cells are manufactured by stem cells, which live mainly in the bone marrow, by a process called hematopoiesis. Lymphatic System and the Blood

31 Stem cells produce hemocytoblasts that differentiate into precursors for all the different types of blood cells. Hemocytoblasts mature into three types of blood cells: Erythrocytes (red blood cells or RBCs) Leukocytes (white blood cells or WBCs) Thrombocytes (platelets) Stem cells produce hemocytoblasts that differentiate into precursors for all the different types of blood cells. Hemocytoblasts mature into three types of blood cells: Erythrocytes (red blood cells or RBCs) Leukocytes (white blood cells or WBCs) Thrombocytes (platelets) Lymphatic System and the Blood

32 Lymphatic System and Blood Cells

33 CYMATHERAPY ® BIORESONANCE Copyright  2007 Elizabeth Bauer for Cymatherapy ® International. All Rights Reserved. Copyright  2007 Elizabeth Bauer for Cymatherapy ® International. All Rights Reserved.


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