2 A Scientific Process… Is Based on Observed Facts Has Repeatable ResultsProduces Verifiable OutcomesIs Carried Out in a Standard, Systematic Way
3 Scientific MethodThe Standard, Systematic Way to Carry Out a Scientific ProcessHypothesis (Untested Idea)Experiment (Test to Check Validity of Hypothesis)Theory (Valid Explanation of Observations)Model – Simplified Theory with AssumptionsLaw (Summary of Key Experimental Observations)
4 The Scientific MethodExperimentTheoryLawHypothesis
5 Scientific Problem Solving HypothesisExperimentTheory/LawUnderstand Problem ConceptsPropose Solution Based on Applicable RelationshipsTry Proposal (ie – Do the Math!)Check Results – Do they Make Sense?Document/Summarize Results
6 It’s All About Measurements Measurement – 3 PartsA Number or Value; MagnitudeA Unit: Provides the Standard ScaleOne of the Standard Scale – Known and ConstantEg, pound, gram, liter, newtonWhat is Being Measured – Sometimes Very Important
7 Examples of Measurements 3.98 calories of heat5.67 newtons force of bowling ball striking pins10.0 liters of water57 km/hour auto speed7.65 gallons gasoline
8 Not Measurements Objects Counted Definitions – eg. Exactly 2.54 cm = 1 inchWhy Not?Counted Items and Definitions are not debatableThey are “perfect”No “perfect” measurements; always error; never exact
9 A Very Useful Technique Dimensional Analysis (aka “Factor Labeling”)Converting a Measurement from One Unit to Another“Cutting to the Chase” of a Proportion Problemm Unit 1 x Unit 2/Unit 1 = n Unit 2Problem to Try – How many pounds is 583 grams?