2 CloningCloning is the process of forming identical genetic offspring from a single cell.Cloning is referred to as asexual reproduction because the DNA originates from a single parent.It is a natural process that happens daily in nature when organisms produce exact duplicates of themselves by asexual reproduction (binary fission, budding…).
3 The First CloneCloning started in 1958 when Frederic Stewart grew a carrot from root cells.Clones are not actually identical in appearance; rather they are identical in genetics.Remember: A clone has the genes of only 1 parent so it is genetically identical to that parent. (We have ½ our genes from one parent and ½ from the other.
4 The First Animal CloneThe frog was one of the first animals to be cloned.Scientists extracted the nucleus from an unfertilized egg-this is called an “enucleated cell”A nucleus from a cell in early stage of embryo development is put into the enucleated cell
5 This transplanted cell grew and divided like a normal cell and the adult frog was similar to the frog that donated the nucleus not the frog that donated the egg cell.Cells had to come from a frog embryo which had not yet specialized, or cloning would not happen.
6 Cloning a mouse uses a similar technique to cloning the frog Scientists were successful only when they took the nuclei from embryo cells up to the eight-cell stage, before the cells began to specialize
7 DollyIn 1996, Dolly the sheep, a species much more complex than simple plants or bacteria, was cloned. She was the first fertile clone!This is the most famous cloning case to date.Genetic information from a FINN DORSET sheep.Enucleated ovum from a POLL DORSET sheep.Surrogate mother Blackface sheep.Offspring Clone of the FINN DORSET.Dolly showed signs of premature aging, possibly due to using specialized somatic cell nucleus.
8 Genetic information from a FINN DORSET sheep. Enucleated ovum from a POLL DORSET sheep.Surrogate mother Blackface sheep.Offspring Clone of the FINN DORSET.
9 Other Clones Dolly the Sheep (1996) Tetra the Rhesus monkey (2000) Xena the Pig (2000)Alpha and Beta Male Cattle (2001)CC the Cat (2001)Idaho Gem & Utah Pioneer the Mules (03)Dewey the Deer (2003)Prometea the Horse (2003)
10 Types of CloningRecombinant DNA Cloning: Cloning a gene of particular interest.Reproductive Cloning: Cloning that develops into a birth. (Stem cell)Therapeutic cloning: Cloning with the goal of studying human development to treat disease.Is cloning a human being, part or whole, ethical or unethical?