Presentation on theme: "(c) McGraw Hill Ryerson 2007"— Presentation transcript:
1 (c) McGraw Hill Ryerson 2007 5.2 Asexual ReproductionA clone is an identical genetic copy of its parentMany organisms naturally form clones via asexual reproductionCloning is also used in agriculture and research to copy desired organisms, tissues and genesType of Asexual ReproductionBinary fission - single cell organisms splitting into identical copiesBudding - areas of multicellular organisms undergo repeated mitosis to form an identical organism. Buds sometimes detach to form a separate organismFragmentation - part of an organism breaks off due to injury, and the part grows into a clone of the parentVegetative reproduction - special cells in plants that develop into structures that form new plants identical to the parentSpore formation - some bacteria, micro-organisms and fungi can form spores - single cells that can grow into a whole new organismSee pages(c) McGraw Hill Ryerson 2007
2 (c) McGraw Hill Ryerson 2007 Asexual ReproductionAdvantages and DisadvantagesSee page 175(c) McGraw Hill Ryerson 2007
3 Human Assisted Cloning Humans use all the asexual cloning methods in order to produce desired results with organisms. This is done in several ways:Reproductive cloning - purpose is to produce a genetic duplicate of an existing or dead organism. Steps involved:Remove nucleus from an egg cellA mammary gland cell is removed from an adult femaleElectricity fuses mammary and egg cellFused cell begins dividingDividing embryo is inserted into surrogate motherSee pages(c) McGraw Hill Ryerson 2007
4 Human Assisted Cloning Therapeutic cloning - purpose is to correct health problemsVery important to therapeutic cloning are stem cells - cells that can become different types of cellsStem cells can be used to replace cells damaged from injuries or diseaseDiabetes, spinal injuries, Parkinson’s disease are only a few that can benefit from stem cell therapyControversial because the best stem cells are from embryos which are destroyed when harvesting cellsMouse Stem CellsTake the Section 5.2 QuizSee pages(c) McGraw Hill Ryerson 2007
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