2Guided Reading Activity FDR began his political career by being elected to New York State Senate and then later serving in the Wilson administration.In 1928 he was elected governor of the state of New York.His popularity paved the way for his election in 1932 as President. His policies to end the Depression were called New Deal .
3Guided Reading Activity 4. Because people thought that Roosevelt would abandon the gold standard, they withdrew their savings from banks. To prevent banks from collapsing, governors declared bank holidays. 5. Roosevelt chose advisers who disagreed with one another. He did this so he could hear different points of view
4Guided Reading Activity 6. Roosevelt asked Congress to pass the Emergency Banking Relief Act, which put an end to the banking crisis 7. Congress also created the Securities and Exchange Commission to regulate the stock market and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation to insure bank deposits.
5Guided Reading Activity 8. The Farm Credit Administration helped farmers refinance their mortgages. 9. To help farmers, the Agricultural Adjustment Act paid farmers not to produce certain farm products to increase demand and raise prices. 10. The program met its goal, but raising food prices in a depression drew harsh criticism.
6Guided Reading Activity 11. Business, labor, and the government set rules for each industry, known as codes of fair competition. The National Recovery Administration helped a few industries, but the codes were difficult to administer. 12. The most highly praised relief program, which planted trees, built reservoirs, and fought forest fires, was the Civilian Conservation Corps.
7Guided Reading Activity 13. Two relief programs that hired construction workers to build highways, roads, and other things were the Public Works Administration and the Civilian Works Administration. 14. How did Roosevelt’s First New Deal increase the power and influence of the federal government? acts of Congress, new agencies, and relief programs extended government influence and control into banking, the stock market, the nation’s industries, and farming. All of these were subject to government regulation and control. The works programs provided jobs for a great number of Americans to the point that even Roosevelt was worried that people were becoming too dependent on government interference.
8Chapter 10-1 Notes15. President Roosevelt’s energy, serenity, confidence, and optimism gave many Americans hope despite the tough times of the Depression. 16. The Agricultural Adjustment Act that Roosevelt asked Congress to pass was based on the idea that prices for farm goods were low because farmers grew too much food.
9Chapter 10-1 Notes17. President Roosevelt and his advisers did not want to simply give money to the unemployed, so they established a series of government agencies that would organize work programs for the unemployed 18. The Federal Emergency Relief Administration attempted to help unemployed Americans by channeling money to state and local agencies.
10Chapter 10-1 Notes19. Since some of his advisers believed that debt was the main obstacle to economic recovery, Roosevelt asked Congress to establish the Home Owners’ Loan Corporation and the Farm Credit Administration to help people with their credit and loans. 20. The period between March 9 and June 16, 1933, when Congress passed 15 major acts to meet the economic crisis of the Depression, was called the Hundred Days
11Chapter 10-1 Notes21. The Emergency Banking Relief Act helped solve the banking crisis by issuing licenses to banks that federal examiners found financially sound. 22. To regulate the stock market, Congress created the Securities and Exchange Commission 23. Which program paid farmers not to grow certain crops, such as cotton, corn, wheat, and tobacco? the Agricultural Adjustment Administration
12Chapter 10-1 Notes24. Perhaps the most important result of President Franklin Roosevelt’s First New Deal was a noticeable change in the spirit of the American people
13Guided Reading Activity 10-2 25. How did Roosevelt start paying for the New Deal programs in 1934? He abandoned a balanced budget and started deficit spending 26. What did the political right think about expanded government power? They felt the federal government had too much power over the states 27. Why did the political left believe that Roosevelt had not gone far enough? The left wanted the redistribution of wealth from the rich to the middle class and the poor
14Guided Reading Activity 10-2 28. What was the WPA? The Works Progress Administration built thousands of miles of roads and highways and constructed public buildings and parks 29. What did the Wagner Act guarantee workers? It allowed workers to set up unions and bargain collectively
15Guided Reading Activity 10-2 30. Why did unions use sit-down strikes? These strikes prevented business management from hiring others to replace striking workers 31. Whom was the Social Security Act designed to help? It helped senior citizens, the disabled, and poor mothers with dependent children
16Guided Reading Activity 10-2 32. What principle did the Social Securities Act establish? It said the government should be responsible for those unable to work 33. How did the Wagner Act and the Social Security Act benefit some Americans? these acts enabled workers to unionize, settle disputes through arbitration, vote for or against unionization by secret ballot, and provide pensions for older Americans, those with disabilities, and some poor mothers
17Chapter 10-2 Notes34. After the New Deal had been in effect for two years, the U.S. economy showed only slight improvement 35. Father Coughlin, a former New Deal supporter with a popular radio show, called for the government to nationalize the banking system
18Chapter 10-2 Notes36. In Schechter Poultry Company Corporation v. United States, the Supreme Court struck down the authority of the NRA 37. What did the bold series of programs and reforms that President Franklin Roosevelt launched in 1935 come to be called? the Second New Deal
19Chapter 10-2 Notes38. Funded the construction of highways, buildings, and parks Works Progress Administration 39. Union organizing tactic in which employees stopped work inside a factory and refused to leave sit-down strike 40. Law providing modest payments to older Americans and the unemployed Social Security Act
20Chapter 10-2 Notes41. Guaranteed workers the right to organize unions and to bargain collectively National Labor Relations Act 42. Government practice of borrowing money to pay for programs and not balancing the budget deficit spending
21Guided Reading Activity 10-3 43. There was a major shift in allegiance of African Americans from the Republican Party to the Democratic Party. 44. Roosevelt was furious that the Supreme Court declared some legislation of the New Deal unconstitutional
22Guided Reading Activity 10-3 45. Roosevelt proposed legislation in March 1937 that would have increased the number of Supreme Court justices, but the Senate quietly killed the bill without a vote. 46. The Roosevelt administration used a new theory called Keynesian economics, which maintained that the government should spend heavily in a recession
23Guided Reading Activity 10-3 47. The last major piece of New Deal legislation was the Fair Labor Standards Act, which abolished child labor, limited the work week, and set the first minimum wage. 48. The purpose of the Farm Security Administration was to give loans to tenants so they could purchase farms.
24Guided Reading Activity 10-3 49. Most Americans felt that the New Deal gave them a stronger sense of security and stability. 50. Why did some Americans approve of the New Deal and others oppose it? Those who opposed the New Deal felt that it made the federal government too powerful and citizens too dependent upon the government. Those who approved thought that the government had the duty to maintain a safety net for Americans
25Chapter 10-3 Notes51. Women and African Americans made modest gains because of the support of Eleanor Roosevelt 52. African American voters turned away from the Republican party in 1936 to support Roosevelt’s reelection 53. The New Deal coalition was made up of FARMERS, INDUSTRIAL WORKERS, AFRICAN AMERICANS, NEW IMMIGRANTS, ETHNIC MINORITIES, WOMEN, PROGRESSIVES, AND INTELLECTUALS.
26Chapter 10-3 Notes54. The term “broker state” is used to refer to THE GOVERNMENT’S ROLE IN WORKING OUT CONFLICTS AMONG DIFFERENT INTERESTS 55. President Roosevelt’s programs succeeded in creating a safety net for average Americans, in the form of safeguards and relief programs that protected them against economic disaster.
27Chapter 10-3 Notes56. Which figure in the Roosevelt administration was most active in bringing African Americans and women into the New Deal coalition? First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt 57. President Roosevelt’s desire to change the political balance on the Supreme Court led to the court-packing plan, which proved to be Roosevelt’s first serious political mistake
28Chapter 10-3 Notes58. The Fair Labor Standards Act abolished child labor, limited the workweek to 44 hours for most workers, and set the first federal minimum wage 59. The Supreme Court’s decisions in NLRB v. Jones and Laughlin Steel and Wickard v. Filburn helped establish the legacy of the New Deal by allowing the federal government to mediate between competing groups and by increasing federal power over the economy
29Chapter 10-3 Notes60. In terms of its main goal of ending the Depression, the New Deal was only a limited success, but it gave many Americans a sense of security and stability
30FDR NOTES61. Roosevelt is the only president elected to four consecutive terms. 62. The New Deal program was created to lead the country to economic recovery from the Great Depression.
31Eleanor Roosevelt NOTES 63. She was Franklin's "eyes and ears." She traveled throughout the United States, meeting with citizens from all social classes, learning what they thought, and then passing that information on to her husband, the president. 64. Eleanor Roosevelt worked to ease conditions in poverty-stricken areas and she was a supporter of civil rights and the ending of discrimination.