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CONNECTIVE TISSUES Most abundant type of tissue

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Presentation on theme: "CONNECTIVE TISSUES Most abundant type of tissue"— Presentation transcript:

1 CONNECTIVE TISSUES Most abundant type of tissue
Fills internal spaces, provides structural support for other tissues, and stores energy reserves Includes tissues such as fat, bone, and blood Most types are well vascularized All types have a common origin (mesenchyme) Includes 3 components: specialized cells extracellular protein fibers ground substance fluid or semi-solid which surrounds cells MMM

2 3 Major Cell Types Fibroblast Most common fixed cell
Large, star shaped Produces fibers by secreting protein into matrix

3 Macrophages Wandering Cells that originate as WBC’s
Function as scavengers that clear foreign particles  Phagocytosis Also, play a role in immunity by allerting other WBC’s of foreign particles

4 Mast Cells Large, widely distributed cells Associated with inflammation Releases heparin and histamine

5 CLASSIFICATION 3 CATEGORIES: Connective tissue proper
tissue with many types of cells and extracellular fibers in a syrupy ground substance ex. Adipose tissue Fluid connective tissue cells suspended in a watery matrix that contains dissolved proteins ex. Blood Supporting connective tissue low diverse cell population and a matrix of closely packed fibers ex. Bone and cartilage

Composed of many kinds of cells Fibroblasts, Macrophages, Adipocytes 3 types of fibers Collagen - long, straight unbranched; flexible but strong ex: tendons, ligaments Reticular – cells suspended in a watery matrix that contains dissolved proteins Bone & Cartilage: stabilizes cells & vessels Elastic - contains the protein “elastin”. Branched, wavy, will contract after stretching ex: elastic ligaments Ground Tissue - high viscosity; slows the spread of pathogens to make them easier for phagocytes to catch

7 Real life apps

8 Connective Tissue Proper
Loose connective tissue (areolar) characterized by white and yellow fibers between fibroblasts packing material of the body, cushions, attaches skin to the body, supports blood vessels

9 Adipose tissue dominated by adipocytes
energy storage, brown fat in infants (highly vascularized) each cell consists of large vacuole filled with triglycerides

10 Reticular Connective Tissue
complex open framework of reticular fibers supports walls of organs such as liver and spleen

11 Dense Connective Tissue
consists of many closely packed collagen fibers, elastin fibers, and few fibroblasts regular - collagen fibers are parallel to each other tendons, ligaments irregular - collagen fibers are randomly arranged and interwoven : provides strength to resist forces applied from many directions; interwoven meshwork dermis

12 Elastic Connective Tissue
- consists of mainly yellow elastic fibers parallel or branching walls of hollow organs, large arteries, heart etc.

Ground substance – plasma Blood contains formed elements: Erythrocytes, leukocytes, Platelets Arteries carry blood from heart to capillaries, water and solutes move into interstitial fluid, Veins return blood to heart

14 Erythrocytes: carry oxygen (confined to vessels)
Leukocytes: fight infection (wander) Platelets: blood clotting

15 Supportive Connective Tissue Bone & Cartilage
I. Cartilage Cells: Chondrocytes Matrix: Firm gel of proteoglycans Avascular: heals slowly Covering: Perichondrium: Composed of 2 layers Outer layer: dense irregular tissue Inner layer: cells Growth: Interstitial & Appositional Appositional: undergoes extensive remodeling on a regular basis Interstitial: 3 main types

16 Hyaline - Tightly packed collagen fibers
Most Common Type Looks like white glass Functions: Reduces friction, important in growth and repair of bones Locations: Between bone surfaces, nose, trachea, intercostal cartilage

17 Elastic - Numerous elastic fibers
flexible Functions: Provides support but distorts without damage Locations: Ears, nose, epiglottis Fibrocartilage - matrix dominated by collagen fibers Extremely durable Functions: Resists compression, limits movement Locations: Between vertebrae, pads within knee joints

18 II. Bone - Most rigid connective tissue
Cells - Osteocytes Matrix - 1/3 collagen fibers & mixture of calcium salts Vascularized - caniculi - extensive blood vessels in matrix for exchange of materials Covering - Periosteum (2 layers) fibrous outer layer cellular inner layer Growth - Appositional undergoes extensive remodeling on a regular basis responds to stresses: grow thicker & stronger = exercise

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