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Connective Tissue Loose connective tissue Blood…why? Cartilage

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Presentation on theme: "Connective Tissue Loose connective tissue Blood…why? Cartilage"— Presentation transcript:

1 Connective Tissue Loose connective tissue Blood…why? Cartilage
Collagenous fiber Plasma White blood cells 120 m 55 m Elastic fiber Cartilage Red blood cells Fibrous connective tissue Chondrocytes 100 m Figure 40.5 Exploring: Structure and Function in Animal Tissues 30 m Chondroitin sulfate Nuclei Bone Adipose tissue Central canal Fat droplets 700 m 150 m Osteon 1

2 Connective Tissue Most diverse tissue type
Binds together, supports and strengthens other tissues. Protects and insulates internal organs Compartmentalizes structures – e.g. skeletal muscles Major transport system – ? Store energy – ? Immune response – ? Two basic elements: cell and matrix – material between the cells. Matrix contains: protein fibers and ground substance – the material between the cells and the fibers. Nerve supply -- ? Usually highly vascular: Exceptions are cartilage and tendons.

3 Types of Cells Widely spaced – Not tight packed like epithelial cells.
Fibroblasts that secrete the fibers and ground substance of the extracellular matrix Macrophages that are involved in the immune system (fixed and wandering) Mast cells produce histamine, a chemical that dilates small blood vessels as part of the inflammatory response – The body’s reaction to injury or infection. Adipocytes are fat cells

4 Extracellular Matrix Two main elements
Ground substance – mostly water along with adhesion proteins and polysaccharide molecules Supports cells Binds cells together Exchange of substances between blood and cells Fibers Produced by the cells Three types Collagen fibers Elastic fibers Reticular fibers The matrix is firm in some parts of the body, but hard in others. Examples: ?

5 Fibers (this they should know)

6 Fibers Collagen Fibers Made of protein called collagen
Strong yet flexible Resist pulling forces Found in: Bone Cartilage Tendons Ligaments

7 Fibers Elastic Fibers Thiner than collagen fibers
Made of the protein, elastin Can be stretch without breaking Found in: Skin Blood vessels lungs

8 Fibers Reticular Fibers Much thinner than collagen fibers
Provide support for stroma (covering) of soft organs Found in: Basement membrane Nerve fibers Muscles Spleen Lymph nodes

9 Connective Tissue Fibers Summary
There are three types of connective tissue fiber, all made of protein: Collagenous fibers provide strength and flexibility Found in: tendon, ligament, skin, cornea, cartilage, bone, blood vessels, gut, and intervertebral disc. Elastic fibers stretch and snap back to their original length Found in: Skin, blood vessel walls, lung tissue Reticular fibers join connective tissue to adjacent tissues Found in: liver, bone marrow, lymphatic organs, basement membrane

10 Quiz Which type of protein are collagen fibers made of?
Which type of fiber provides support for soft organs? Which type of protein are elastic fibers made of? Which type of fibers can be found in blood vessels? Which type of fiber provides the greatest strength?

11 Ground Substance Forms the material between the cells and fibers of connective tissue. Made of water, proteins, and polysaccharides Instrumental in how tissues: Develop Migrate Proliferate Change shape Metabolize

12 Connective Tissue Types
six major types of connective tissue: Loose connective tissue Dense connective tissue Cartilage Bone Blood tissue Lymph

13 Loose Connective Tissue
3 types of loose connective tissue Areolar connective tissue Adipose connective tissue Reticular connective tissue

14 Areolar Connective Tissue
Forms the subcutaneous layer – Attaches skin to the underlying tissues and organs Made of collagen, elastic and reticular fibers. Made of fibroblast, macrophages, plasma, mast cells and adipocytes (fat cells) Figure 3.19e

15 Adipose Tissue Cells store fat. Functions
Insulates the body Protects some organs Serves as a site of fuel storage Does an obese person have more blood vessels? Figure 3.19f

16 Reticular Connective Tissue
Delicate network of interwoven fibers Forms stroma of lymphoid organs Lymph nodes Spleen Bone marrow Bind together smooth muscle cells Filter worn out blood cells and bacteria.

17 Dense Connective Tissue
More and thicker fibers but fewer cells than loose connective tissue Main matrix element is collagen fibers Cells are fibroblasts Examples Tendon – attach muscle to bone Ligaments – attach bone to bone Figure 3.19d

18 Dense Connective Tissue
Dense Regular Fibers arranged in parallel – Regular Tendons and most ligaments Dense Irregular Fibers not parallel – Irregular Heart valves Elastic Can extend and return to original length Lungs, arteries

19 Connective Tissue Types
Bone (osseous tissue) Composed of: Bone cells in cavities Hard matrix of calcium salts Large numbers of collagen fibers Used to protect and support the body

20 Connective Tissue Types
Hyaline cartilage Most common cartilage Composed of: Abundant collagen fibers Rubbery matrix Entire fetal skeleton is hyaline cartilage Figure 3.19b

21 Connective Tissue Types
Elastic cartilage Provides elasticity Example: supports the external ear

22 Connective Tissue Types
Fibrocartilage Highly compressible Example: forms cushion-like discs between vertebrae Figure 3.19c

23 Connective Tissue Types
Blood Blood cells surrounded by fluid matrix Functions as the transport vehicle for materials Figure 3.19h











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