Presentation on theme: "Connective Tissue The most abundant and widely distributed type of tissue in the whole body. General characteristics: With the exception of 3 types, connective."— Presentation transcript:
1 Connective TissueThe most abundant and widely distributed type of tissue in the whole body.General characteristics:With the exception of 3 types, connective tissues have a great blood supply.Reproduce quicklyClassified as being “connective” because at least 50% of the tissue is non-living.
2 Connective Tissue continued…. Function:Designed to bind tissues togetherHelps protect the bodyStore energy in the form of fatTransport materials throughout the body (blood, lymph)2 main components of connective tissue:MatrixCells
3 Matrix of Connective Tissue A base material that contains protein fibers and is found between the cells of connective tissue.Functions to support the cells of the connective tissueNon-livingThe structure of the matrix determines the characteristics of the connective tissueFibers are proteins found in the matrix that strengthen and support connective tissue.
4 Fibers in Connective Tissue The properties of a connective tissue can change if the types/amounts of fibers in the matrix change.Types of fibers:Collagen- Very strong and slightly flexible and add strength to connective tissueElastic- Strong and very flexible fibersReticular- Strong and highly branching fibers that help form the framework of a connective tissue
6 Cells of Connective Tissue Not all of the possible types are found in all connective tissuesFibroblasts:Make the fibers found in the matrixFound in most connective tissuesPhagocytes:Macrophages and neutrophils- Phagocytic cells that “eat and eliminate” foreign materials.
7 Cells of Connective Tissue continued… Plasma cells:Found in most connective tissuesProduce antibodiesAntibodies- Molecules that help protect us from foreign particlesMast cells:Found in all connective tissuesRelease histamineHistamine- Causes swelling because it signals for blood vessels to become more “leaky” and signals for blood to rush to an area
9 SkinThe next few slides will illustrate the process of inflammation. The skin forms a barrier to keep microorganisms out of the body.Blood
10 Tissue DamagedThe inflammation process can begin if the skin or other tissues are damaged. *A pin penetrating into the skin can start an inflammation. *Bacteria may enter the body with the pin.
11 Histamine ReleasedInjured cells will release histamine. *Histamine will diffuse away from the injured cells.
12 Capillary More Permeable Plasma Leaks OutHistamine will cause capillaries to become more permeable. *This will allow plasma to leak out of the blood.
13 Capillary More Permeable Antibodies Leak OutAntibodies will also leave the blood capillary*.
14 Capillary More Permeable WBCs LeaveWhite blood cells will leave the blood by diapadesis*.
15 Wall of Fibrin FormsThe plasma in the injured area will clot to form a wall of fibrin*.
16 Pus FormsPus forms within the fibrin wall. The pus is composed of serum, white blood cells and bacteria. The pus will drain and scar tissue will form. At this point the injury to the body has been controlled and homeostasis will be restored. Without the inflammation process the injury could spread. For example, bacteria could spread throughout the body and cause death.
18 Cells of Connective Tissue continued… Adipocytes:Found in some connective tissuesContain fat
19 Types of Connective Tissue There are 6 types of mature connective tissue. They include: loose connective tissue, dense connective tissue, cartilage, bone tissue, blood tissue and lymph.
20 Loose Connective Tissue Loosely arranged fibers in the matrix.Areolar- Loose arrangements of collagen, elastic and reticular fibers present in the matrixLocation: In and around every body structure so is often called the “packing material” of the body.Function: Binds structures together, provides strength (collagen), and provides flexibility (elastic)Adipose- Lipids (fats) present in the matrixLocation: Below the skin and surrounding organsFunction: Stores fat, insulates against heat loss, and protects organs
23 Loose Connective Tissue Reticular- Loose arrangements of reticular fibers and reticulocytes in the matrixReticulocytes are a type of fibroblast that specifically secrete lots of reticular fibers.Function: Form the framework for larger organs (like the framework of a house)
25 Dense Connective Tissue Large amounts of thick, dense fibers and fewer cells than loose connective tissueDense regular- Parallel bundles of collagen fibers present in the matrixConnects muscle to bone (tendon) or bone to bone (ligament)Can resist lots of force along the length of the fibersA force against the fibers can tear them (torque)Poor blood supply so it takes a long time to heal
27 Dense Connective Tissue Dense irregular- Random arrangements of collagen fibers present in the matrix.Good blood supplyMakes up the dermis (middle layer) of the skinResists pulling forces in multiple directions
29 Dense Connective Tissue Elastic: Freely branching elastic fibers present in the matrix.Good blood supplyMakes up the wall of an arteryAllows a hollow structure to expand and recoil freelyThis keeps blood moving along in arteries
31 CartilageConsists of a dense network of collagen and elastic fibers in a semi-solid matrixPoor blood supplyChondrin- Gel-like protein found making up the matrix of cartilage tissueTypes of cartilageHyalineCartilage cells (chondrocytes) suspended in a chondrin matrix.Acts as a shock absorberCovers the ends of bones at a joint
33 Types of cartilage continued… FibrocartilageLarge bundles of collagen fibers and few chondrocytes suspended in a chondrin matrixFound in the knee meniscus and the disks between vertebraeActs as a shock absorberElastic cartilageElastic fibers and few chondrocytes suspended in a chondrin matrixFound in the outer ear
38 Blood Liquid connective tissue Transports materials throughout the body2 basic components:Plasma-55% of total bloodmostly watersupports the formed elementsFormed elements (cells)-Erythrocytes- red blood cells- transport oxygen- outnumber white cells 700:1Leukocytes- white blood cells- fight infectionThrombocytes- platelets- cell fragments- help form blood clots
39 Lymph Liquid connective tissue Located in lymphatic vessels- separate from blood vesselsNo red blood cells nor plateletsFights infection