2What do all connective tissues have in common? Made up of 3 components:Specialized cellsProtein fibersA fluid known as ground substanceProtein fibers and ground substance= MatrixThe matrix makes up most of the volume of connective tissues
33 Major Types of Connective Tissue: 1) Connective Tissue Proper2) Fluid Connective Tissue3) Supporting Connective Tissue
4Cells of Connective Tissue Proper Fibroblasts: most abundant type; produce fibers and ground substance.Macrophages: these cells “eat” or phagocytize damaged cells or pathogens. Release chemicals that mobilize the immune system.Fat cells or adipocytes: contain large droplets of lipids (fat)Mast Cells: found near blood vessels; have vesicles filled with chemicals released to defend the body after injury/infection.
5Connective Tissue Fibers: Collagen fibers: Most common type; long, straight, unbranched- Strong and flexible.Elastic fibers: contain protein Elastin. They are branched, wavy,and stretchy.Reticular fibers: least common type; thin, branched and interwoven like a web.
6Ground SubstanceFills the spaces between cells and surrounds the connective tissue fibers.Clear, colorless and has a maple-syrup consistency ( slows down pathogens)
7Types of Connective Tissue Proper: Loose Connective TissueDense Connective Tissue
8Loose Connective Tissue or “Areolar Tissue” “packing material of the body”Fill spaces between organs, provide cushioning, and support epithelia, anchor blood vessels and nerves, store lipids.
9Adipose Tissue ( Fat)Loose connective tissue is called Adipose tissue if dominated by fat cells (adipocytes).
10Dense Connective Tissues: Consists mostly of collagen fibers.Types:Tendons: attach skeletal muscles to bonesLigaments: connect bones to each other. Have some elastic fibers ( a little more stretchy than tendons).
11Fluid Connective Tissues 2 Types: Blood and LymphContain cells in a watery matrix.Unlike other connective tissues, the proteins are dissolved in the matrix and do not form insoluble fibers.
12Blood- A fluid Connective Tissue Consists of:Red blood cells: transport Oxygen(O2)White blood cells: fight infectionPlatelets: clot blood
13Lymph- A fluid Connective Tissue Lymph: forms as interstitial fluid ( fluid within the body’s tissue) enters small passageways , or Lymphatic vessels that eventually return it to the cardiovascular system.
14Supporting Connective Tissues: Includes: Cartilage and BoneProvide a strong framework that supports the body
15Cartilage The matrix is a firm gel containing embedded fibers. Contains Chondrocytes: cartilage cells found within the matrix that live in small pockets called lacunaeIs avascularSeparated from surrounding tissues by perichondrium.3 major types: Hyaline, Elastic, Fibrous
16Hyaline Cartilage Most common type Matrix contains closely packed collagen fibersTough but flexible. Found: between joints, connecting ribs to sternum, supporting the larynx and trachea.
17Elastic Cartilage Matrix contains numerous elastic fibers Resilient and flexibleFound: external flap of ear (auricle), the epiglottis, and airway to the middle ear.
18Fibrous Cartilage or Fibrocartilage Matrix contains little ground substance and is dominated by collagen fibers that are densely interwoven.Tough and durableFound: pads between vertebrae, between pubic bones of pelvis.
19Bone ( Osseus tissue)Matrix consists of little ground substance containing collagen fibers . It is calcified with calcium compoundsStrong and resistant to shattering.Contain osteocytes( bone cells) found in lacunaeLacunae are found surrounding blood vessels .Cytoplasmic extensions from osteocytes reach blood vessels- form a network called the canaliculi
20Bone Contain osteocytes( bone cells) found in lacunae Lacunae are found surrounding blood vessels .Cytoplasmic extensions from osteocytes reach blood vessels- form a network called the canaliculi (little canals)Outer layer of bone surrounded by a fibrous covering called periosteum