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Forces Ms. Moore 9/10/12

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**Review Newton’s First Law Force and Acceleration Mass and Acceleration**

The motion of an object changes only in an unbalanced force acts on the object. Force and Acceleration What’s the difference in throwing a ball horizontally as hard as your can and tossing it gently? Mass and Acceleration If you throw a softball and a baseball as hard as you can, why don’t they have the same speed?

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Newton’s Second Law If the acceleration of an object is in the same direction as the net force on the object, then: Acceleration (m/s2) = Net Force (N) mass (kg) Example: You push a wagon that has a mass of 8kg. If the net force on the wagon is 4N, what is the wagon’s acceleration? Lets work this out together.

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Practice on Your Own If the mass of a helicopter is 4,00kg, and the net force on it is 18,000N, what is the helicopter’s acceleration? What is the net force on a dragster with a mass of 900kg if its acceleration is 32m/s2? A car pulled by a tow truck has an acceleration of 2m/s2. What is the mass of the car if the net force on the car is 3,000N?

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Friction When you push a skateboard does it keep the same velocity and continue to move in a straight line with constant speed? Friction: force that opposes the sliding motion of two surfaces that are touching each other The amount of friction between two surfaces depends on: Kinds of surfaces Force pressing surfaces together

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What causes Friction? Would you believe that even the surface of a highly polished piece of metal is rough? If two surfaces are in contact, welding or sticking occurs where the bumps touch each other. These microwelds are the source of friction. The larger the force pushing the two surfaces together, the stronger these microwelds will be.

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Static Friction Suppose you filled a cardboard box with books and you want to move it. It is too heavy to pick up, so you begin to slide it, but it does not budge. You are experiencing static friction. Static friction is the force that prevents two surfaces from sliding past each other. Applied Force Books Static Friction

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Sliding Friction You ask a friend to help you move the box. Pushing together, the box moves. Together you and your friend have exerted enough force to break the microwelds between the floor and the bottom of the box. What happens when you stop pushing? Sliding friction is the force that opposes the motion of two surfaces sliding past each other. Microwelds break and form again as the box slides. Force must be continually applied to move the box. Applied Force Books Force Sliding Friction

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Rolling Friction Ever get your car stuck in the snow or mud? Notice that your wheels just spin without the car moving. To make the car move, sand or gravel may be spread out under the wheels. As a wheel rolls over a surface, the wheel digs into the surface, causing both the wheel and surface to be deformed. Static friction acts over this area, producing a frictional force known as rolling friction. Rolling friction is the force between a rolling object and the surface it rolls on. Think about how a train stops on the tracks.

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Air Resistance As an object falls towards Earth, it is pulled downward by what force? A friction-like force called air resistance opposes the motion of objects that move through the air. It causes objects to fall with different accelerations and different speeds. Amount of air resistance of an object depends on the speed, size, and shape of the objects. Air resistance, not the mass of the object, is why feathers, leaves, and pieces of paper fall more slowly than other objects.

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**The larger the surface area, the more air resistance acting against the object.**

What would happen if there was no air resistance? What would fall faster, an apple or a feather?

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Terminal Velocity As an object falls, gravity causes the object to accelerate. As an object falls faster, the upward force of air resistance increases. Terminal velocity is the highest speed a falling object will reach. This depends on the size, shape, and mass of the object.

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**Review Force, Mass, and Acceleration Newton’s 2nd Law Friction**

The greater the force on an object, the greater the object’s acceleration. The acceleration of an object depends on its mass as well as well as the force exerted on it. Newton’s 2nd Law The acceleration of an object is in the direction of the net force on the object. a = Fnet / m Friction Static Sliding Rolling Air Resistance Terminal Velocity

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**Gravity What is gravity?**

What does gravity affect? Gravity is the attractive force between any two objects that depends on the masses of the objects and the distance between them. This force increases as the mass of either object increases or as the objects move closer.

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**Law of Universal Gravitation**

gravitational force = (constant) X (mass1) x (mass2) (distance)2 The range of gravity No matter how far two objects are away from each other, their gravitational force is never zero. Finding other planets In the 1840s, the most distant planet known was Uranus. The motion of Uranus calculated from the law of universal gravitation disagreed with its observed motion. Therefore, Neptune was found in 1846.

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**Earth’s Gravitational Acceleration**

Force of gravity (N) = mass (kg) x acceleration of gravity (m/s2) Close to the Earth’s surface, the acceleration of a falling object in free fall is about 9.8 m/s2 The gravitational force exerted on an object is called weight. Weight (N) = mass (kg) x acceleration of gravity (m/s2)

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**Weightless and Free Fall**

Lets assume that you are in an elevator. You are standing on a scale. What would the scale say? Now the elevator begins to free fall downward while you are still on the scale. What would the scale read now? WHY?? Is there a difference in gravity? How about mass and weight? What is the difference between mass and weight? Find the mass of 5 different objects in this room. Create a table showing the relationship to their weight on Earth.

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**Centripetal Force WATCH THIS**

Acceleration toward the center of a curved or circular path is called centripetal acceleration. The net force exerted toward the center of a curved path is called a centripetal force. What are some examples of centripetal force? Can we use gravity as an example? Why or why not? WATCH THIS

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**Newton’s Third Law of Motion**

When one object exerts a force on a second object, the second one exerts a force on the first that is equal in strength and opposite in direction. “TO EVERY ACTION FORCE THERE IS AN EQUAL AND OPPOSITE REACTION FORCE.” Action and Reaction Forces do not cancel each other out; if they did, nothing would happen. BALOON DEMO…

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**Momentum (kg m/s) = mass (kg) x velocity (m/s)**

What is momentum? A moving object has momentum that is related to how much force is needed to change its motion. Momentum (kg m/s) = mass (kg) x velocity (m/s) p = mv Force and changing momentum Momentum is transferred in collisions. F = (mvf – mvi) / t

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**Practice Problems Set-Up**

What is the momentum of a car with a mass of 1,300 kg traveling at a speed of 28 m/s? A baseball has a momentum of 6kg m/s. If the mass of the baseball is 0.15kg, what is the baseball’s speed? What is the mass of a person walking at a speed of 0.8m/s if the person’s momentum is 52kg m/s?

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**Law of Conservation of Momentum**

Momentum of an object doesn’t change unless its mass, velocity, or both change. Momentum, however, can be transferred from one object to another. Can you give me any examples of the transfer of momentum? WATCH THIS

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**Review Newton’s Third Law Momentum The Law of Conservation of Momentum**

For every action force, there is an equal and opposite reaction force. Action and reaction forces act on different objects. Momentum The momentum of an object is the product of its mass and velocity: p = mv The Law of Conservation of Momentum If objects exert forces only on each other, their total momentum is conserved. In a collision, momentum is transferred from one object to another.

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**The Momentum of Colliding Objects**

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