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**Unit 1: Energy and Motion**

Table of Contents 3 Unit 1: Energy and Motion Chapter 3: Forces 3.1: Newton’s Second Law 3.2: Gravity 3.3: The Third Law of Motion

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**Force, Mass, and Acceleration**

Newton’s Second Law 3.1 Force, Mass, and Acceleration Newton’s first law of motion states that the motion of an object changes only if an unbalanced force acts on the object. Newton’s second law of motion describes how the forces exerted on an object, its mass, and its acceleration are related.

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**Force and Acceleration**

Newton’s Second Law 3.1 Force and Acceleration What’s different about throwing a ball horizontally as hard as you can and tossing it gently? When you throw hard, you exert a much greater force on the ball.

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**Force and Acceleration**

Newton’s Second Law 3.1 Force and Acceleration The hard-thrown ball has a greater change in velocity, and the change occurs over a shorter period of time.

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**Force and Acceleration**

Newton’s Second Law 3.1 Force and Acceleration Recall that acceleration is the change in velocity divided by the time it takes for the change to occur. So, a hard-thrown ball has a greater acceleration than a gently thrown ball.

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Newton’s Second Law 3.1 Mass and Acceleration If you throw a softball and a baseball as hard as you can, why don’t they have the same speed? The difference is due to their masses.

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Newton’s Second Law 3.1 Mass and Acceleration If it takes the same amount of time to throw both balls, the softball would have less acceleration. The acceleration of an object depends on its mass as well as the force exerted on it. The heavier the object the less acceleration Force, mass, and acceleration are related.

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**Newton’s Second Law 3.1 Newton’s second law of motion –**

F= MA Force equals the mass x acceleration Force- Newtons (N) Mass- Kg Acceleration- M/S² Sample Problems:

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**Calculating Net Force with the Second Law**

Newton’s Second Law 3.1 Calculating Net Force with the Second Law Newton’s second law also can be used to calculate the net force if mass and acceleration are known. To do this, the equation for Newton’s second law must be solved for the net force, F.

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**Calculating Net Force with the Second Law**

Newton’s Second Law 3.1 Calculating Net Force with the Second Law To solve for the net force, multiply both sides of the equation by the mass: The mass, m, on the left side cancels, giving the equation:

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**Friction 3.1 Suppose you give a skateboard a push with your hand.**

Newton’s Second Law 3.1 Friction Suppose you give a skateboard a push with your hand. According to Newton’s first law of motion, if the net force acting on a moving object is zero, it will continue to move in a straight line with constant speed. Does the skateboard keep moving with constant speed after it leaves your hand?

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Newton’s Second Law 3.1 Friction Friction- force that opposes the motion of two surfaces that are touching each other. Friction depends on the roughness of surfaces force pressing the surfaces together.

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Newton’s Second Law 3.1 Static Friction Suppose you have filled a cardboard box with books and want to move it. It’s too heavy to lift, so you start pushing on it, but it doesn’t budge. If the box doesn’t move, then it has zero acceleration.

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Newton’s Second Law 3.1 Static Friction Static friction frictional force that prevents two surfaces from moving.

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Newton’s Second Law 3.1 Sliding Friction If you stop pushing, the box quickly comes to a stop. This is because as the box slides across the floor, another forcesliding frictionopposes the motion of the box. Sliding friction opposes the motion of two surfaces sliding past each other.

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Newton’s Second Law 3.1 Rolling Friction As a wheel rolls over a surface, the wheel digs into the surface, causing both the wheel and the surface to be deformed.

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Newton’s Second Law 3.1 Rolling Friction Static friction acts over the deformed area where the wheel and surface are in contact, producing a frictional force called rolling fiction. Rolling friction- is the frictional force between a rolling object and the surface it rolls on.

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Newton’s Second Law 3.1 Air Resistance air resistance opposes the motion of objects that move through the air. Air resistance causes objects to fall with different accelerations and different speeds.

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Newton’s Second Law 3.1 Air Resistance Air resistance acts in the opposite direction to the motion of an object through air. If the object is falling downward, air resistance acts upward on the object.

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Newton’s Second Law 3.1 Air Resistance The amount of air resistance on an object depends on the speed, size, and shape of the object. Air resistance, not the object’s mass, is why feathers, leaves, and pieces of paper fall more slowly than pennies, acorns, and apples.

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Newton’s Second Law 3.1 Terminal Velocity As an object falls, the downward force of gravity causes the object to accelerate. However, as an object falls faster, the upward force of air resistance increases. This causes the net force on a sky diver to decrease as the sky diver falls.

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Newton’s Second Law 3.1 Terminal Velocity Finally, the upward air resistance force becomes large enough to balance the downward force of gravity. This means the net force on the object is zero. Then the acceleration of the object is also zero, and the object falls with a constant speed called the terminal velocity.

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Newton’s Second Law 3.1 Terminal Velocity The terminal velocity is the highest speed a falling object will reach. The terminal velocity depends on the size, shape, and mass of a falling object.

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Section Check 3.1 Question 1 Newton’s second law of motion states that _________ of an object is in the same direction as the net force on the object. A. acceleration B. momentum C. speed D. velocity

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Section Check 3.1 Answer The answer is A. Acceleration can be calculated by dividing the net force in newtons by the mass in kilograms.

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**Question 2 3.1 The unit of force is __________. A. joule B. lux**

Section Check 3.1 Question 2 The unit of force is __________. A. joule B. lux C. newton D. watt

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Section Check 3.1 Answer The answer is C. One newton = 1 kg · m/s2

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**Question 3 Answer 3.1 What causes friction?**

Section Check 3.1 Question 3 What causes friction? Answer Friction results from the sticking together of two surfaces that are in contact.

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Gravity 3.2 What is gravity? Gravity is an attractive force between any two objects that depends on the masses of the objects and the distance between them.

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**The Law of Universal Gravitation**

Gravity 3.2 The Law of Universal Gravitation Isaac Newton formulated the law of universal gravitation, which he published in 1687.

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**The Law of Universal Gravitation**

Gravity 3.2 The Law of Universal Gravitation G = Universal gravitational constant M1 and M2 = mass of objects d = distance between objects F= force of gravity between objects The law of universal gravitation enables the force of gravity to be calculated between any two objects if their masses and the distance between them is known.

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Gravity 3.2 The Range of Gravity According to the law of universal gravitation, the gravitational force between two masses decreases rapidly as the distance between the masses increases.

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Gravity 3.2 The Range of Gravity No matter how far apart two objects are, the gravitational force between them never completely goes to zero.

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Gravity 3.2 Finding Other Planets In the 1840s the most distant planet known was Uranus. The motion of Uranus calculated from the law of universal gravitation disagreed slightly with its observed motion. Some astronomers suggested that there must be an undiscovered planet affecting the motion of Uranus.

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Gravity 3.2 Finding Other Planets Using the law of universal gravitation and Newton’s laws of motion, two astronomers independently calculated the orbit of this planet. As a result of these calculations, the planet Neptune was found in 1846.

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**Earth’s Gravitational Acceleration**

Gravity 3.2 Earth’s Gravitational Acceleration Earth’s gravity acceleration- 9.8 m/s2. Represented by the symbol – g

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Gravity 3.2 Weight Weight- gravitational force exerted on an object

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**Weight and Mass 3.2 Weight and mass are not the same.**

Gravity 3.2 Weight and Mass Weight and mass are not the same. Weight is a force and mass is a measure of the amount of matter an object contains.

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Gravity 3.2 Weight and Mass The weight of an object usually is the gravitational force between the object and Earth. The weight of an object can change, depending on the gravitational force on the object.

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Gravity 3.2 Weight and Mass The table shows how various weights on Earth would be different on the Moon and some of the planets.

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Gravity 3.2 Projectile Motion If you’ve tossed a ball to someone, you’ve probably noticed that thrown objects don’t always travel in straight lines. They curve downward.

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**Horizontal and Vertical Motions**

Gravity 3.2 Horizontal and Vertical Motions When you throw a ball, the force exerted by your hand pushes the ball forward. This force gives the ball horizontal motion. No force accelerates it forward, so its horizontal velocity is constant, if you ignore air resistance.

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**Horizontal and Vertical Motions**

Gravity 3.2 Horizontal and Vertical Motions However, when you let go of the ball, gravity can pull it downward, giving it vertical motion. The ball has constant horizontal velocity but increasing vertical velocity.

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**Horizontal and Vertical Motions**

Gravity 3.2 Horizontal and Vertical Motions Gravity exerts an unbalanced force on the ball, changing the direction of its path from only forward to forward and downward. The result of these two motions is that the ball appears to travel in a curve.

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**Click image to view movie**

Gravity 3.2 Horizontal and Vertical Distance If you were to throw a ball as hard as you could from shoulder height in a perfectly horizontal direction, would it take longer to reach the ground than if you dropped a ball from the same height? Click image to view movie

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**Horizontal and Vertical Distance**

Gravity 3.2 Horizontal and Vertical Distance Surprisingly, it wouldn’t. Both balls travel the same vertical distance in the same amount of time.

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Gravity 3.2 Centripetal Force centripetal acceleration Acceleration toward the center of a curved or circular path is called.

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Gravity 3.2 Centripetal Force centripetal force The net force exerted toward the center of a curved path is called a. Force pushes objects to the outside

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**Centripetal Force and Traction**

Gravity 3.2 Centripetal Force and Traction When a car rounds a curve on a highway, a centripetal force must be acting on the car to keep it moving in a curved path. This centripetal force is the frictional force, or the traction, between the tires and the road surface.

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**Centripetal Force and Traction**

Gravity 3.2 Centripetal Force and Traction Anything that moves in a circle is doing so because a centripetal force is accelerating it toward the center.

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**Gravity Can Be a Centripetal Force**

3.2 Gravity Can Be a Centripetal Force Imagine whirling an object tied to a string above your head. The string exerts a centripetal force on the object that keeps it moving in a circular path.

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**Gravity Can Be a Centripetal Force**

3.2 Gravity Can Be a Centripetal Force Earth’s gravity exerts a centripetal force on the Moon that keeps it moving in a nearly circular orbit.

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Section Check 3.2 Question 1 Gravity is an attractive force between any two objects and depends on __________. Answer Gravity is an attractive force between any two objects and depends on the masses of the objects and the distance between them.

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**Question 2 3.2 Which is NOT one of the four basic forces? A. gravity**

Section Check 3.2 Question 2 Which is NOT one of the four basic forces? A. gravity B. net C. strong nuclear D. weak nuclear

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Section Check 3.2 Answer The answer is B. The fourth basic force is the electromagnetic force, which causes electricity, magnetism, and chemical interactions between atoms and molecules.

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Section Check 3.2 Question 3 Which of the following equations represents the law of universal gravitation? A. F = G(m1m2/d2) B. G = F(m1m2/d2) C. F = G(m1 - m2/d2) D. F = G(d2/m1m2)

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Section Check 3.2 Answer The answer is A. In the equation, G is the universal gravitational constant and d is the distance between the two masses, m1 and m2.

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**Newton’s Third Law 3.3 Newton’s third law of motion**

The Third Law of Motion 3.3 Newton’s Third Law Newton’s third law of motion For every force… there is an equal and opposite force

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The Third Law of Motion 3.3 Action and Reaction When you jump on a trampoline, for example, you exert a downward force on the trampoline. Simultaneously, the trampoline exerts an equal force upward, sending you high into the air.

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**Action and Reaction Forces Don’t Cancel**

The Third Law of Motion 3.3 Action and Reaction Forces Don’t Cancel According to the third law of motion, objects are experiencing unbalanced forces Thus, even though the forces are equal, they are not balanced because they act on different objects.

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**Action and Reaction Forces Don’t Cancel**

The Third Law of Motion 3.3 Action and Reaction Forces Don’t Cancel For example, a swimmer “acts” on the water, the “reaction” of the water pushes the swimmer forward. Thus, a net force, or unbalanced force, acts on the swimmer so a change in his or her motion occurs.

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The Third Law of Motion 3.3 Rocket Propulsion In a rocket engine, burning fuel produces hot gases. The rocket engine exerts a force on these gases and causes them to escape out the back of the rocket. Newton’s third law, the gases exert a force on the rocket and push it forward.

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The Third Law of Motion 3.3 Momentum momentum that is related to how much force is needed to change its motion. momentum of an object is the product of its mass and velocity.

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**Momentum 3.3 Momentum = symbol p The unit for momentum is kg · m/s.**

The Third Law of Motion 3.3 Momentum Momentum = symbol p The unit for momentum is kg · m/s.

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**Force and Changing Momentum**

The Third Law of Motion 3.3 Force and Changing Momentum Recall that acceleration is the difference between the initial and final velocity, divided by the time. Also, from Newton’s second law, the net force on an object equals its mass times its acceleration.

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**Force and Changing Momentum**

The Third Law of Motion 3.3 Force and Changing Momentum Calculating force from momentum mvf is the final momentum mvi is the initial momentum.

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**Law of Conservation of Momentum**

The Third Law of Motion 3.3 Law of Conservation of Momentum The momentum of an object doesn’t change unless its mass, velocity, or both change. Momentum, however, can be transferred from one object to another. The law of conservation of momentum- if a group of objects exerts forces only on each other, their total momentum doesn’t change.

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The Third Law of Motion 3.3 When Objects Collide A collision depend on the momentum of each object. When the first puck hits the second puck from behind, it gives the second puck momentum in the same direction.

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The Third Law of Motion 3.3 When Objects Collide If the pucks are speeding toward each other with the same speed, the total momentum is zero.

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**Question 1 Answer 3.3 According to Newton’s third law of motion,**

Section Check 3.3 Question 1 According to Newton’s third law of motion, what happens when one object exerts a force on a second object? Answer According to Newton’s law, the second object exerts a force on the first that is equal in strength and opposite in direction.

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Section Check 3.3 Question 2 The momentum of an object is the product of its __________ and __________. A. mass, acceleration B. mass, velocity C. mass, weight D. net force, velocity

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**Answer 3.3 The correct answer is B. An object’s momentum**

Section Check 3.3 Answer The correct answer is B. An object’s momentum is the product of its mass and velocity, and is given the symbol p.

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Section Check 3.3 Question 3 When two objects collide, what happens to their momentum?

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Section Check 3.3 Answer According to the law of conservation of momentum, if the objects in a collision exert forces only on each other, their total momentum doesn’t change, even when momentum is transferred from one object to another.

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Help 3 To advance to the next item or next page click on any of the following keys: mouse, space bar, enter, down or forward arrow. Click on this icon to return to the table of contents Click on this icon to return to the previous slide Click on this icon to move to the next slide Click on this icon to open the resources file. Click on this icon to go to the end of the presentation.

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**End of Chapter Summary File**

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