3 Newton’s 3 Laws Law of Inertia Newton’s second law of motion connects force, mass, and accelerationFor every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
4 Newton’s second law Force and motion are connected an object will have greater acceleration if a greater force is applied to itEx. throwing a baseballthe mass of an object and the force applied to it affect accelerationEx. difference between throwing a baseball and a softball
5 Force = mass X acceleration Can also be written as….Force is calculated in NewtonsMass will be calculated in kilogramsAcceleration will be in meters per seconds per seconds or m/s2Acceleration = net force (in newtons)mass (in kilograms)
6 Lets do an example…You push a friend on a sled. Your friend and the sled together have a mass of 70 kg. If the net force on the sled is 35 N, what is the sled’s acceleration?
7 You can also calculated force F = maA tennis player hits a ball. The acceleration is 5000 m/s2. The mass of a tennis ball is 0.06 kg. What would be the net force exerted on the ball?
8 Other forces exerted…GravityFrictionAir resistance
9 FrictionFriction is a force that opposes motion between two surfaces that are touching each other
10 Amount of friction… Depends on two factors: the kinds of surfaces that are touchingthe force pressing the surfaces together
11 MicroweldsEven apparently smooth surfaces still have microscopically rough surfacesMicrowelds are areas where surface bumpers stick together (these are the sources of friction)
12 FrictionStatic Friction – friction between two surfaces that are not moving past each other
13 FrictionSliding Friction – force that opposes the motion of two surfaces sliding past each other
14 FrictionFriction between a rolling object and the surface it rolls on is called rolling friction
15 Air ResistanceAir resistance opposes the motion of objects that move through the airThe amount of air resistance depends on an object’s shape, size, and speed
16 Terminal VelocityGravity is a force and thus causes objects to accelerate towards earthAs something falls faster air resistance gets stronger and thus is able to balance the downward force of gravity.Terminal velocity depends on the size, shape, and mass of a falling object.
19 GravityLaw of gravitation – any two masses exert an attractive force on each otherGravity – an attractive force between two objects that depends on the masses of the objects and the distance between them
21 Earth’s Gravitational Acceleration Every object on earth falls at the same rate af acceleration due to gravityacceleration due to gravity = 9.8 m/s2
22 What is weight? Weight – is a gravitational force exerted on an object Weight decreases as an object moves away from EarthWeight results from a forceW = mass (kg) X acceleration of gravity (m/s2)W = mg
23 Difference between Weight and Mass Weight is a force and mass is a measure of how much matter an object contains.However… they are related.Weight increases as mass increases…
24 Projectile MotionWhen something is thrown it has a velocity in the direction which it was thrown as well as a velocity towards earth due to gravity.Therefore a projectile will have horizontal and vertical velocities due to gravity, and follow a curved path.
28 Newton’s Third Law of Motion Law: To every action force there is an equal and opposite reaction force.
29 MomentumA moving object has a property called momentum that is related to how much force is needed to change its motion.The momentum of an object doesn’t change unless its mass, velocity, or both change.Momentum – related to how much force is needed to change an object’s motion; momentum equals mass times velocitymomentum = mass (kg) X velocity (m/s)p = mv
30 Law of conservation of momentum Momentum can be transferred between objects; momentum is not lost or gained in the transfer.