2Review of Vowels Three factors for the description of English vowels I. The height of the body of the tongue –highest point of tongue (vertical axis);II. The front-back position of the tongue –highest point of tongue (horizontal axis);III. The degree of lip rounding - lip posture
7Unit 8: Word Stress English is a stress timed language The English language is often referred to as stress-timed. Stress in a spoken sentence occurs at regular intervals and the time to say something depends on the number of stressed syllables rather than the number of syllables itself.1 and 2 and 3 and 41 and a 2 and a 3 and a 41 and then a 2 and then a 3 and then a 4
8Word Stress A word stress means a prominent syllable word pattern tea.cher• .beau.ti.ful• . .un.der.stand. . •con.ti.nue. • .
9How to pronounce word stress? When a syllable is stressed, it is pronouncedlonger in durationhigher in pitchlouder in volume
10How do you say teacher? TEA cher Longer teeeeeeeeeeee cher Higher tea LouderTEA cherAll three combinedTEEEEEEEEEEE
11Word Stress Rule Word type Where is the stress? Examples Two syllables Nounson the first syllablecenter object flowerVerbson the last syllablerelease admit arrangeCompoundNouns (N + N) (Adj. + N)on the first partdesktop pencil case bookshelf greenhouseAdjectives (Adj. + P.P.)on the last part (the verb part)well-meanthard-headed old-fashionedVerbs (prep. + verb)understand overlook outperform
12the syllable before the ending economic Geometric electrical Word typeWhere is the stress?ExamplesPhrasal Verbson the particleturn offbuckle uphand outWord with added ending-icthe syllable before the endingeconomicGeometricelectrical-tion, -cian, -sionTechniciangraduationcohesion-phy, -gy, -try, -cy, -fy, -althe third from the last syllablePhotographybiologygeometry-meterParameterThermometerbarometer
13Sentence Stress in English Sentence stress is the music of spoken English. Like word stress, sentence stress can help you to understand spoken English, especially when spoken fast.Sentence stress is what gives English its rhythm or "beat". You remember that word stress is accent on one syllable within a word. Sentence stress is accent on certain words within a sentence.
14Most sentences have two types of word: content wordsstructure wordsContent words are the key words of a sentence. They are the important words that carry the meaning or sense.Structure words are not very important words. They are small, simple words that make the sentence correct grammatically.If you remove the structure words from a sentence, you will probably still understand the sentence.
15Imagine that you receive this telegram message: SELLCARGONEFRANCESELLmyCARI’veGONEtoFRANCEWillyouSELLmyCARbecauseI’veGONEtoFRANCE
17Rules for Sentence Stress in English The basic rules of sentence stress are:content words are stressedstructure words are unstressedthe time between stressed words is always the same
18Content words - stressed Words carrying the meaningExamplemain verbsSELL, GIVE, EMPLOYnounsCAR, MUSIC, MARYadjectivesRED, BIG, INTERESTINGadverbsQUICKLY, LOUDLY, NEVERnegative auxiliariesDON'T, AREN'T, CAN'TStructure words - unstressedWords for correct grammarExamplepronounshe, we, theyprepositionson, at, intoarticlesa, an, theconjunctionsand, but, becauseauxiliary verbsdo, be, have, can, must