3 The “-ed” sounding words post/posted /ed/Verbs which end in the sounds /t/ or /d/ have their past endings pronounced /ed/:/t/ posted /d/ addedThe -ed ending is pronounced as an extra syllable added to the base form of the verb.
4 The “-d” sounding words play/played /d/Verbs which end in the following sounds have their past endings pronounced /d/:/b/ rubbed /g/ tugged /dZ/ managed/l/ filled /m/ dimmed /n/ listenedvowel + /r/ stirred /v/ loved /z/ seizedThe -ed ending is not pronounced as an extra syllable.
5 The “-t” sounding words work/worked /t/Verbs which end in the following sounds have their past endings pronounced /t/:/k/ packed; /s/ passed; /tS/ watched; /S/ washed; /f/ laughed; /p/ tippedThe -ed ending is not pronounced as an extra syllable.
6 The Final –s and –es as /s/ and /z/ The final –s and –es has 2 sounds. The sounds are s and z./s/ and /z/ are related sounds --the same, except /z/ uses the voice, /s/ does not. Now when you form a plural by adding an "s" (also to form singular verbs), it 'follows the lead' of the sound just before it on whether of not to use the voice,. After 'voiced' consonant sounds s (b, d, g, l, m, n, r, v) and vowels (which ALWAYS use the voice in English), the "s" ends up being voiced -- making the /z/ sound. If the preceding sound is NOT voiced (f, k, p, t) the "s" will make the /s/ sound (without the voice).
7 Short and long vowel sounds Ă atĔ betĬ mitŎ cotŬ cutĀ ateĒ eatĪ biteŌ overŪ suit
8 r- controlled vowels"R controlled vowels" are those that are followed by an "r" and do not make their regular short or long sound.ar (park), er (certain), ir (circle),or (more), ur (turn)
9 Combining simple sentences with but The word but is a conjunction like the words and / or. These words are used to combine two simple sentences into one complex sentence.The word but means in contrast to, on the other hand. It is used to join to opposite sentences or ideas:example: I want to go, but I can’t.I need to buy a new car, but I don’t have the money.
10 Adjectives Adjectives are words that describe nouns. They can either go before the noun the describeExample: The gentle elephant.orIt can be placed after a verbExample: The elephant is gentle.
11 Spelling of the regular past The regular past always ends in -d:arrive/arrivedVerbs ending in -e add -d: e.g. phone/phoned, smile/smiled. This rule applies equally to agree, die, lie, etc.wait/waitedVerbs not ending in -e add -ed: e.g. ask/asked, clean/cleaned, follow/followed, video/videoed.stop/stoppedVerbs spelt with a single vowel letter followed by a single consonant letter double the consonant: beg/begged, rub/rubbed.occur/occurredIn two-syllable verbs the final consonant is doubled when the last syllable contains a single vowel letter followed by a single consonant letter and is stressed: pre'fer/preferred, re'fer/referred. Compare: 'benefit/benefited, 'differ/differed and 'profit/profited which are stressed on their first syllables and which therefore do not double their final consonants. In American English labeled, quarreled, signaled and traveled follow the rule. In British English labelled, quarrelled, signalled and traveled are exceptions to the rule.cry/criedWhen there is a consonant before -y, the "y" changes to "i" before we add -ed: e.g. carry/carried, deny/denied, fry/fried, try/tried. Compare: delay/delayed, obey/obeyed, play/played, etc. which have a vowel before -y and therefore simply add -ed in the past.