2 Intonation and Stress- In verbal communication, we don’t express ourselves with words alone. In addition to our facial expressions, gestures, and other body movements, our vocal patterns add underlying meaning to what we say.
3 Intonation and Stress-Intonation: The changes in voice during speech.Pitch inflections: the changes in our pitch tones on intonation.
4 Intonation and StressStress: it makes certain parts in a message clearer and more distinct by increasing their loudness and length.- Primary Stress Secondary StressStressed Syllable is spoken longer and louder with higher pitch.Unstressed Syllable is spoken shorter and quicker.
5 Intonation and StressAt the word level:Pitch rises with its highest level on the syllable with primary stress.- Step inflection- Gliding inflection
6 Intonation and Stress Beyond the word level: In phrases and sentences, only certain words are normally given stress. (content words).Content words: like nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs- Function words: serve more to provide grammar structure. They include articles, conjunctions, pronouns, and prepositions. Function words are normally reduced and spoken quickly.
7 Intonation and Stress Falling and rising inflection: -Falling pitch indicates that the speaker has finished a thought.Rising pitch indicates that the speaker intends to continue on the thought.Example:Wh-questions are spoken with a falling inflection.Yes/No questions are normally spoken with a rising inflection
8 Primary Stress and Final Inflection: Primary stress is normally placed on the last content word.-Stress for Emphasis:Stress is shifted in a sentence to emphasize the words that mean more specifically what the speaker wishes to express.
9 Rhythm Rhythm in speech results from timing in connected segments. - Function words are unstressed and therefore are often spoken with the same timing as unstressed syllables.