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American English Speech Patterns Chapter One. Intonation and Stress - In verbal communication, we don’t express ourselves with words alone. In addition.

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Presentation on theme: "American English Speech Patterns Chapter One. Intonation and Stress - In verbal communication, we don’t express ourselves with words alone. In addition."— Presentation transcript:

1 American English Speech Patterns Chapter One

2 Intonation and Stress - In verbal communication, we don’t express ourselves with words alone. In addition to our facial expressions, gestures, and other body movements, our vocal patterns add underlying meaning to what we say.

3 Intonation and Stress - Intonation: The changes in voice during speech. Pitch inflections: the changes in our pitch tones on intonation.

4 Intonation and Stress Stress : it makes certain parts in a message clearer and more distinct by increasing their loudness and length. - Primary Stress - Secondary Stress Stressed Syllable is spoken longer and louder with higher pitch. Unstressed Syllable is spoken shorter and quicker.

5 Intonation and Stress At the word level: Pitch rises with its highest level on the syllable with primary stress. - Step inflection - Gliding inflection

6 Intonation and Stress Beyond the word level: In phrases and sentences, only certain words are normally given stress. (content words). -Content words: like nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs - Function words: serve more to provide grammar structure. They include articles, conjunctions, pronouns, and prepositions. Function words are normally reduced and spoken quickly.

7 Intonation and Stress Falling and rising inflection: -Falling pitch indicates that the speaker has finished a thought. -Rising pitch indicates that the speaker intends to continue on the thought. Example : Wh-questions are spoken with a falling inflection. Yes/No questions are normally spoken with a rising inflection

8 Primary Stress and Final Inflection: Primary stress is normally placed on the last content word. -Stress for Emphasis: Stress is shifted in a sentence to emphasize the words that mean more specifically what the speaker wishes to express.

9 Rhythm Rhythm in speech results from timing in connected segments. - Function words are unstressed and therefore are often spoken with the same timing as unstressed syllables.

10 Thank you


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