Presentation on theme: "BELL WORK Add these vocabulary words to your notes Natural Law – rule or law that governs human nature Social Contract – an agreement by which people."— Presentation transcript:
BELL WORK Add these vocabulary words to your notes Natural Law – rule or law that governs human nature Social Contract – an agreement by which people give up their freedom to a powerful government in order to avoid chaos Natural Right – rights that belong to all humans at birth Philosophe – member of a group of Enlightenment thinkers who tried to apply the methods of science to the improvement of society Physiocrat – Enlightenment thinker who searched for natural laws to explain economics Laissez Faire – policy allowing business to operate with little or no government interference
THE AGE OF INVENTION The Scientific Revolution 1550-1700 Galileo formed part of the basis for developments historians call the Scientific Revolution. This revolution caused controversies in religion, philosophy, and politics, and ended up changing the way Europeans viewed nature. The "Scientific Revolution" refers to historical changes in thought & belief, to changes in social & institutional organization, that unfolded in Europe Nicholas Copernicus asserted a heliocentric (sun-centered) cosmos, it ended with Isaac Newton, who proposed universal laws and a Mechanical Universe.
Change in Thinking Renaissance and Reformation- Looked to the past for wisdom and direction Scientific Revolution- forward thinking toward the physical universe Scientific Revolution
THE AGE OF REASON The Enlightenment 1685-1815 In his essay "What Is Enlightenment?" (1784), the German philosopher Immanuel Kant summed up the era's motto in the following terms: "Dare to know! Have courage to use your own reason!"
The Age of Reason Thinkers in Britain, in France and throughout Europe questioned traditional authority and embraced the notion that humanity could be improved through rational change. The purpose was to reform society using reason, challenge ideas grounded in tradition and faith, and advance knowledge through the scientific method.
The Age of Reason The Enlightenment promoted: Scientific Thought Skepticism and Intellectual Interchange The Enlightenment opposed: Superstition Intolerance
THE THINKERS BEHIND THE MOVEMENT Wrote Leviathan, which was an influential work concerning the structure of society and legitimate government. Leviathan is regarded as one of the earliest and most influential examples of social contract theory. Hobbes argues that people were naturally cruel, greedy, and selfish. If not strictly controlled, they would fight, rob, and oppress on another. In order to escape the “brutish” life, people entered an agreement(social contract) by which they gave up the state of nature for an organized society. THOMAS HOBBES
The Thinkers behind the movement JOHN LOCKE Viewed humanity more optimistically than Hobbes. Saw people as basically reasonable and moral. Believed that all people had natural rights, or rights that belonged to all humans from birth. Including the right to life, liberty and property. Two Treatises of Government, locked argues that people formed governments to protect their natural rights. The best kind of government had limited power and was accepted by all citizens.