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Diseases and Disorders

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Presentation on theme: "Diseases and Disorders"— Presentation transcript:

1 Diseases and Disorders
Respiratory System Diseases and Disorders

2 Tonsillitis Inflammation of the tonsils (tonsils are lymph tissue on the side and in the back of the throat)


4 Sinusitis Inflammation of the sinuses resulting from some kind of infection



7 A twenty-five year old patient with a known history of depression and deliberate self-harm was brought to Accident and emergency department following an attempt to commit suicide. He had put a pencil in his right nostril and deliberately fallen on a table pushing the pencil into his nose. There was no history of bleeding from the nose or loss of consciousness. On examination the patient was alert with a GCS of 15 and was haemodynamically stable. There was no epistaxis and no CSF leak. A broken pencil shaft could be seen through the right nostril.


9 Bronchitis Inflammation of the bronchi resulting from infection
Persistent and irritating cough yielding sputum, a tight chest, wheezing, pain with cough



12 Whooping Cough (pertussis)
Intense bouts of coughing that interferes with breathing and can cause vomiting. Can lead to complications that can be life threatening

13 Pneumonia Inflammation that causes the alveoli to fill with fluid


15 Pneumothorax (collapsed lung)
Air enters the pleural cavity (space surrounding the lung) and causes the lung to collapse

16 Pneumothorax



19 Tuberculosis Infectious disease that attacks the lungs
Causes severe coughing, bloody sputum, fever, night sweats, weight loss 50% of patients with advance symptoms die from disease





24 Asthma Estimated 300 million people worldwide suffer from asthma
Main Causes of Asthma Airway constriction Inflammation

25 Asthma Types of Asthma Allergic Asthma – triggered by an allergic reaction to allergens (like pollen or pet dander) Nonallergic Asthma – triggered by substances in the air (tobacco, smoke, deodorizers, paint fumes, perfumes, odors)

26 Asthma Types of Asthma Nocturnal – Symptoms that seem worse in the middle of the night Pregnancy – among pregnant patients who have asthma, 1/3 will improve, 1/3 will remain stable, and 1/3 will experience worsening of asthma Occupational- caused by exposure to a substance in the workplace

27 911: The Bronx – Severe Asthma

28 Lung Cancer Disease of uncontrolled cell growth in the lungs
Most common cause is long term exposure to tobacco smoke 15% of cases are in nonsmokers





33 The main respiratory consequences of smoking marijuana regularly (one joint a day) are pulmonary infections and respiratory cancer. The effects also include: chronic bronchitis impairment in the function of the smaller air passages inflammation of the lung the development of potentially pre-cancerous abnormalities in the bronchial lining and lungs a reduction in the capabilities of many defensive mechanisms within the lungs.

34 Marijuana smoke and cigarette smoke contain many of the same toxins, including one which has been identified as a key factor in the promotion of lung cancer. This toxin is found in the tar phase of both, and it should be noted that one joint has four times more tar than a cigarette, which means that the lungs are exposed four-fold to this toxin and others in the tar.

35 21.96.10.html
It is notable that several reports indicate an unexpectedly large proportion of marijuana users among cases of lung cancer and cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx. html for information on the link between chemicals contained in marijuana and lung cancer. for an article concerning the link between marijuana and cancer

36 Marijuana Medical treatment (THC) tetrahydrocannabinol Nausea Glaucoma
Pain Multiple Sclerosis

37 Marijuana Side effects
Impairment of thinking, problem-solving skills and memory Reduced balance and coordination Increased risk of respiratory infections & diseases Potential for hallucinations and withdrawal symptoms

38 Marijuana Research has shown that marijuana’s adverse impact on learning and memory can last for days or weeks after the acute effects of the drug wear off. As a result, someone who smokes marijuana every day may be functioning at a suboptimal intellectual level all of the time.

39 Marijuana A number of studies have shown an association between chronic marijuana use and increased rates of anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation, and schizophrenia.

40 Marijuana side effects
The Heart. One study found that the risk of heart attack more than quadruples in the first hour after smoking marijuana. This might be from marijuana’s effects on blood pressure and heart rate (it increases both) and reduced oxygen-carrying capacity of blood.

41 Marijuana side effects
The Lungs. same respiratory problems as tobacco smokers daily cough and phlegm production, more frequent acute chest illness, a heightened risk of lung infections, greater tendency toward obstructed airways Numerous studies have shown marijuana smoke to contain carcinogens and to be an irritant to the lungs. In fact, marijuana smoke contains 50 to 70 percent more carcinogenic hydrocarbons than tobacco smoke. Marijuana users usually inhale more deeply and hold their breath longer than tobacco smokers do, which further increases the lungs’ exposure to carcinogenic smoke

42 Marijuana side effects
Head and Neck. Smoking marijuana has been linked with an increased risk of head and neck cancers. Several case reports have found an unexpectedly high number of marijuana users among persons with cancers of the head and neck region, including the mouth, tongue, throat, and larynx

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