7 A twenty-five year old patient with a known history of depression and deliberate self-harm was brought to Accident and emergency department following an attempt to commit suicide. He had put a pencil in his right nostril and deliberately fallen on a table pushing the pencil into his nose. There was no history of bleeding from the nose or loss of consciousness. On examination the patient was alert with a GCS of 15 and was haemodynamically stable. There was no epistaxis and no CSF leak. A broken pencil shaft could be seen through the right nostril.
24 Asthma Estimated 300 million people worldwide suffer from asthma Main Causes of AsthmaAirway constrictionInflammation
25 AsthmaTypes of AsthmaAllergic Asthma – triggered by an allergic reaction to allergens (like pollen or pet dander)Nonallergic Asthma – triggered by substances in the air (tobacco, smoke, deodorizers, paint fumes, perfumes, odors)
26 AsthmaTypes of AsthmaNocturnal – Symptoms that seem worse in the middle of the nightPregnancy – among pregnant patients who have asthma, 1/3 will improve, 1/3 will remain stable, and 1/3 will experience worsening of asthmaOccupational- caused by exposure to a substance in the workplace
33 The main respiratory consequences of smoking marijuana regularly (one joint a day) are pulmonary infections and respiratory cancer.The effects also include:chronic bronchitisimpairment in the function of the smaller air passagesinflammation of the lungthe development of potentially pre-cancerous abnormalities in the bronchial lining and lungsa reduction in the capabilities of many defensive mechanisms within the lungs.
34 Marijuana smoke and cigarette smoke contain many of the same toxins, including one which has been identified as a key factor in the promotion of lung cancer.This toxin is found in the tar phase of both, and it should be noted that one joint has four times more tar than a cigarette, which means that the lungs are exposed four-fold to this toxin and others in the tar.
35 www.sarnia.com/GROUPS/ANTIDRUG/mrr/ 21.96.10.html It is notable that several reports indicate an unexpectedly large proportion of marijuana users among cases of lung cancer and cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx.htmlfor information on the link between chemicals contained in marijuana and lung cancer.for an article concerning the link between marijuana and cancer
36 Marijuana Medical treatment (THC) tetrahydrocannabinol Nausea Glaucoma PainMultiple Sclerosis
37 Marijuana Side effects Impairment of thinking, problem-solving skills and memoryReduced balance and coordinationIncreased risk of respiratory infections & diseasesPotential for hallucinations and withdrawal symptoms
38 MarijuanaResearch has shown that marijuana’s adverse impact on learning and memory can last for days or weeks after the acute effects of the drug wear off. As a result, someone who smokes marijuana every day may be functioning at a suboptimal intellectual level all of the time.
39 MarijuanaA number of studies have shown an association between chronic marijuana use and increased rates of anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation, and schizophrenia.
40 Marijuana side effects The Heart. One study found that the risk of heart attack more than quadruples in the first hour after smoking marijuana. This might be from marijuana’s effects on blood pressure and heart rate (it increases both) and reduced oxygen-carrying capacity of blood.
41 Marijuana side effects The Lungs.same respiratory problems as tobacco smokersdaily cough and phlegm production,more frequent acute chest illness,a heightened risk of lung infections,greater tendency toward obstructed airwaysNumerous studies have shown marijuana smoke to contain carcinogens and to be an irritant to the lungs.In fact, marijuana smoke contains 50 to 70 percent more carcinogenic hydrocarbons than tobacco smoke.Marijuana users usually inhale more deeply and hold their breath longer than tobacco smokers do, which further increases the lungs’ exposure to carcinogenic smoke
42 Marijuana side effects Head and Neck. Smoking marijuana has been linked with an increased risk of head and neck cancers. Several case reports have found an unexpectedly high number of marijuana users among persons with cancers of the head and neck region, including the mouth, tongue, throat, and larynx