Presentation on theme: "Respiratory Disorders. Asthma Condition where smooth muscle that lines the airways contracts, making it difficult to breathe. –Allergy-induced Asthma."— Presentation transcript:
Asthma Condition where smooth muscle that lines the airways contracts, making it difficult to breathe. –Allergy-induced Asthma –Cold-induced Asthma –Exercise-induced Asthma
Medicine-containing inhalers (“puffers”) are prescribed to make breathing easier. –Bronchodilaters: chemicals that help open up the bronchioles –Steroids: to strengthen the lung tissue Asthma
Bronchitis Inflammation of the bronchial lining and excessive mucous production. Persistent cough, coughing up phlegm (mucous), which is often discoloured. Discomfort when breathing. –Acute Bronchitis – bacterial / viral infection (e.g., bad cold) –Chronic Bronchitis – allergens, airborne pollutants
Pneumonia Infection of alveoli: air sacs and terminal bronchioles become filled with mucous. Difficulty breathing, chest pain, coughing up discoloured phlegm/mucous. Shows up on X-rays.
Emphysema A form of COPD – serious, fatal, and avoidable! Alveolar damage: –Cilia that line the airways become damaged and cannot filter debris from air; –Debris and mucous build up in bronchioles causing them to; become constricted/blocked –Air pressure increases and causes thin alveolar walls to tear, creating empty spaces.
Emphysema Can be a result of chronic bronchitis or exposure to tobacco smoke. Drastic reduction to surface area for gas exchange. Body compensates by breathing harder, which puts a strain on the heart. Eventually requires assisted breathing devices.
Tuberculosis (TB) Bacterial infection that can affect anyone. Infects lungs as well as the brain, spine, bones and joints.
TB Symptoms Chronic cough. Coughing up fluids or blood. Fever. Loss of appetite. Weight loss. Night sweats.
Cystic Fibrosis Autosomal recessive genetic disorder. Abnormally thick mucous blocks airways – mucous so thick that it is difficult to remove debris and difficult to breathe. Mucous also blocks digestive tract pathways. Prone to respiratory and digestive difficulties. Shows up in early childhood. Medical advances have made it possible for affected individuals to live into adulthood.
Lung Cancer Cancer of lung tissues. Causes: –Smoking. –Second-hand smoke. –Radon. –Asbestos. –Uranium, arsenic & some petroleum products. WATCH THIS!!!
Symptoms Persistent cough. Persistent chest pain. Coughing up blood. Wheezing. Shortness of breath. Loss of appetite. Hoarse voice. Periodic chest infections. WATCH THIS!!!
Environmental Hazards Asbestos once used as insulation, now known to cause diseases of the pleura and often leads to lung cancer Silica major component of rock and sand, irritates in respiratory tract, causes lungs to become less elastic and more rigid Recycled Air causes “sick building syndrome” (nausea, headaches, fatigue, mucous membrane irritation) by recycling indoor air pollutants
Smoking & Second-hand Smoke Causes lung cancer and contributes to respiratory diseases such as asthma, bronchitis, and emphysema. Tobacco smoke contains over 4000 chemicals in its mixture of gases, liquids, and other particles, which linger in the air for a long time.
Tar is the most carcinogenic (cancer-causing) component of cigarettes, but is 70% more concentrated in second-hand smoke! Many tobacco companies claim their cigarette brands have built-in filters, but they do not filter out all the substances, and second-hand smoke victims have no filters! Smoking & Second-hand Smoke