COPD Facts COPD claims the lives of nearly 120,000 Americans yearly. Annual costs to the nation exceed $30 billion. Approximately 80-90% of COPD cases are caused by smoking. A smoker is 10 times more likely than a non- smoker to die of COPD. Other causes are frequent lung infections and exposure to certain industrial pollutants.
Chronic Bronchitis Is an inflammation and eventual scarring of lining of bronchial tubes. 8.8 million people were diagnosed with it in 2009 Symptoms: Chronic cough Chronic cough Increased mucus Increased mucus Frequent clearing of the throat Frequent clearing of the throat Shortness of breath Shortness of breath
Emphysema Causes irreversible damage to lungs. How? The walls between the air sacs within the lungs lose their ability to stretch & recoil. The walls between the air sacs within the lungs lose their ability to stretch & recoil. They become weakened & break. They become weakened & break. Elasticity of the lung tissue is lost, causing air to be trapped in the air sacs & impairing the exchange of Oxygen & Carbon Dioxide. Elasticity of the lung tissue is lost, causing air to be trapped in the air sacs & impairing the exchange of Oxygen & Carbon Dioxide. The support of the airways is lost, allowing for obstruction of airflow. The support of the airways is lost, allowing for obstruction of airflow.
Emphysema (cont.) An estimated 2.8 million Americans have been diagnosed with emphysema sometime in their life. More men than women are diagnosed. Number of women are increasing. Symptoms: Cough Cough Shortness of breath Shortness of breath Limited exercise tolerance Limited exercise tolerance
Treatment for COPD Supplemental oxygen Eventually mechanical ventilation Medications to decrease symptoms or complications Bronchodilators Antibiotics if infections Corticosteroids
Lung Transplants Lung Transplants are being performed in increasing numbers, and may be an option for people suffering from severe emphysema
ASTHMA A CHRONIC disease of the airways that causes recurrent & distressing episodes: Wheezing Wheezing Breathlessness Breathlessness Chest tightness Chest tightness Nighttime or early morning coughing Nighttime or early morning coughing
Those affected Infants Young Children ElderlySmokers Workers exposed to chemical inhalants Those with seasonal allergies Those with recurrent respiratory infections
What Happens In An Attack? May remain unnoticed (asymptomatic) Once out of control, the sides of the airway become inflamed & swollen Muscles of airway constrict, less air passes in & out Excess mucus forms in the airways, clogging them even more Breathing becomes an effort: coughing, wheezing, etc… occur.
Asthma Triggers Allergic reactions to such things as: Dust mites Dust mites Animals Animals Exposure to mold Exposure to mold Strenuous exercise Weather (freezing temps, high humidity) Certain foods &/or food additives Emotional States Outdoor Pollutions (emissions, car exhaust, smoke from burning brush, trash) Cigarette Smoke/Second-hand smoke
Treatment Variety of medications are used, depending on different factors: Is there an infection present? Is there an infection present? Is there an allergic trigger? Is there an allergic trigger? Can the person successfully use inhaler? Can the person successfully use inhaler? Treating asthma involves managing both the chronic inflammation & recurrent episodes of airflow limitation & bronchoconstriction.