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Chinese History SHANG DYNASTY 1750 BCE TO Deng Xiaoping 1997 CE.

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Presentation on theme: "Chinese History SHANG DYNASTY 1750 BCE TO Deng Xiaoping 1997 CE."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chinese History SHANG DYNASTY 1750 BCE TO Deng Xiaoping 1997 CE

2 Shang Dynasty Yellow River Valley Beginnings of foreign trade Bronze tools Chinese Writing System

3 Zhou Dynasty More secular—separation of religion and government “Mandate of Heaven” – moral rulers Construction of 1 st long walls for defense Schools of Philosophy: –Legalism –Confucianism –Daoism a.k.a. Taoism

4 Confucianism Confucius-Teacher/ 551 to 479 BCE Guideline for moral/ethical behavior –5 Key relationships Ruler—RuledFather—Son Elder brother—younger brother Husband—Wife Friendship (only equal relationship)

5 Daoism a.k.a. Taoism Laozi—606 to 530 BCE –Live in harmony with nature –Seek not power and wealth, but happiness within –Government leader as models not enforcers –Follow “the way” –Understand Yin and Yang—opposite forces in nature

6 Buddhism Founder—Siddhartha Gautama 563 to 483 BCE –Four Noble Truths Life is suffering Desire is the cause for suffering Overcoming desire will lead to the end of suffering Follow the eightfold path (righteous behavior) to reach Nirvana Believed only in Nirvana, no other gods

7 Emperor Qin First emperor of a unified China Ruthless—responsible for many deaths including hundreds of Confucian scholars Responsible for building of Great Wall of China –To keep nomadic barbarians out –To keep peasant farmers settled

8 Qing Empire 1600 to 1860 Opium War—1839 to 1842 –Caused by the attempted end of British Opium trade in China –British victory leads to small pockets of Western colonization in China Taiping Rebellion—1854 to 1860 –One of world’s bloodiest civil wars (Over 20 million deaths) –Cause: poverty, corruption, discrimination of ethnic minorities –Leads to further Western control of trade with “spheres of influence”

9 China’s Leaders of the 1900’s Emperess Dowager (China’s last Emperess) Yuan Shi-Kai Sun Yat-Sen (1 st leader of Nationalist Party) Chiang Kai-Shek—Nationalist Party Mao Zedong—Communist Party Deng Xioping—Communist Party

10 1900’s Timeline 1900—Open Door Policy –U.S. called on Europe to allow all nations equal trade in China 1900—Boxer Rebellion/Anti-Foreigners –Revolt against Western nations influence in China/ defeated by an international army –Gives Western countries further control in China 1911—Revolution –End of Manchu Empire –Yuan Shi Kai emerged as China’s new leader

11 THE NATIONALIST PARTY 3 PRINCIPLES OF THE PEOPLE 1.Nationalism: Unifying the country 2.People’s Democracy: Create a government that would be responsive to the people 3.People’s Livelihood: Economic Security

12 THE LONG MARCH TO COMMUNISM 1925 TO 1949 Mid 1920’s- Communist party splits from Nationalist Party 1934—Nationalists a.k.a. (Kuomingtang) surround communists in southern China, communists began 6,000 mile march to northeastern China –Of the 100,000 who begin, fewer than 20,000 survive

13 JAPANESE INVADE CHINA 1930’S: Japanese take advantage of civil war Take control of Manchuria and attempt take over of other provinces Communists and Nationalists unite against common enemy 1945 Japanese loss in WWII forces exit from China

14 TWO CHINAS EMERGE Due to economic reforms, many peasants join the Communist movement. Led by Mao Zedong 1949--Chinese Communist Party, CCP, gains control of mainland China declaring it the People’s Republic of China Nationalist Party flee to Formosa (Taiwan) declaring it the Republic of China Led by Chiang Kai-Shek

15 THE ERA OF MAO 3 GOALS 1. Restore China’s position as a world power 2. Development of modern economy 2. Development of modern economy 3. Better life for the poor 3. Better life for the poor Obstacles to Goals 1.Huge population 2.Few industries 3.Geography 4.Lack of technology 5.Isolation from world community

16 GREAT LEAP FORWARD OR BACKWARD?? 1958 An effort to modernize China –Divided China into communes which controlled the land and peasant life Families split up, ate in large halls, assigned jobs Provided housing, child and medical care, schooling A way to mobilize people to build Mao expected to increase food output

17 DISASTER OF THE GREAT LEAP Peasants resisted and destroyed crops Went against Chinese family traditions Increase of food production failed Floods and droughts added to the problem MAO ABANDONS THE PROGRAM

18 THE CULTURAL REVOLUTION Continued revolution is the best way to achieve a classless society Students and young factory workers band together in support of Chairman Mao, known as the RED GUARDS. Propaganda used to influence young minds and destroy any dissent –The Little Red Book

19 RESULTS Chaos in China Factories lower production Schools close Many citizens tortured, killed or sent to work in peasant communes 1969: Chinese army restores order and sends millions of Red Guards to rural areas

20 Deng Xiaopang 1978—China’s new leader Proposes economic reforms to achieve goals Four Modernizations 1.Modernizing agriculture 2.Expanding industry 3.Developing science and technology 4.Upgrading military defense

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