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European Imperialism in China

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Presentation on theme: "European Imperialism in China"— Presentation transcript:

1 European Imperialism in China

2 The Opium War (1839) Qing Dynasty in decline
British force open trade w/ China OPIUM only product Britain had that China wanted used as currency widespread addiction gov’t attempts to stop blew up a British ship loaded w/ opium British quickly defeat China

3 Treaty of Nanjing (August 1842)
Unequal treaties Emperor paid for destroyed opium Spheres of Influence US Open Door Policy HONG KONG until 1997

4 Hong Kong 1842: British received in the Treaty of Nanjing
Returned Hong Kong back in 1997 according to the treaty “one country, two systems”

5 Unrest & Revolution Boxer Rebellion Taiping Rebellion
20-60 million killed 1851: 432 million pop. 1911: million pop Ci Xi (Empress Dowager) power behind the throne Boxer Rebellion “fist of righteous harmony” Anti-western / Anti-imperialism movement Led to the rise of COMMUNISM in China


7 The Nationalist Party Kuomingdang (KMT) Founder: Dr. Sun Yatsen
Successor: Chang Kai-Shek Support from: Bourgeoise the rich land owners higher educated Goals: 3 Principles o/t Ppl Democracy Capitalism Nationalism Livelihood



10 Chinese Communist Party (CCP) 1949
People’s Republic of China 1st Leader: Mao Zedong Support from: Proletariat peasants / poor Goals: totalitarianism economic/social equality classless system religion is outlawed no private property Successor: Deng Xiaoping

11 KARL MARX Wrote: “The Communist Manifesto” Predicted:
“The Proletariat would rise up against the ruling class” (bourgeoise)

12 MAO ZEDONG Born under FEUDALISM Mao’s New Order Totalitarianism
CCP has total control Support from peasants thru propaganda Immediate influences: order is restored ended foreign influence become self-sufficient

13 Great Leap Forward (1958-1962) Propaganda poster
Mao’s call for a superhuman effort to modernize in one great leap forward Collective Farms: gov’t forced ppl to pool all their resources together Communes: 20,000 people to a commune hope for huge increase in agricultural output HUGE FAILURE upwards of 40 million starved to death 1957: Hundred Flowers Campaign: "Let a hundred flowers bloom, let a hundred schools of though contend". Propaganda poster

14 Cultural Revolution (1966)
To renew the communist revolutionary spirit due to failure o/t Great Leap Forward root out “capitalist roaders” Red Guards students & young factory workers attacked non-Mao supporters Effects: schools closed factories slowed production Red Guards were sent to faraway rural areas Ppl lost faith in Mao

15 Four Modernizations 1972: Nixon visits China 1976: Mao dies
1978: DENG XIAOPING Four Modernizations: Modernizing agriculture Expanding industry Developing science & tech Upgrading the military “responsibility system” Special Economic Zones (SEZ) “Made in China”


17 Beijing

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