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Cultura, Gramática y Vocabulario. CULTURA Culture.

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Presentation on theme: "Cultura, Gramática y Vocabulario. CULTURA Culture."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cultura, Gramática y Vocabulario

2 CULTURA Culture


4 Official Language: Spanish Currency: Chilean peso National Dance: La cueca- which represents the courtship between a rooster and a hen. Typical Foods: Dishes containing seafood (due to long coastline) and Pastel de Choclo (a dish made from meat & corn) Home to 6,000 kilometers of Pacific Coast and is only 180 kilometers wide. Architecture: due to the various climates and ethnic traditions in Chile, housing various from region to region. For example, Southern Chilean housing shows influence from British and/or German immigrants and is built to withstand cold winters. Housing in areas like Chiloé island and the Amazon Basin are built on stilts due to rising waters and are brightly colored. CHILE

5 Places to know: 1.Santiago 2.Isla de Rapa Nui (Isla de Pascua) 3.Los Andes 4.Parque Nacional Laguna San Rafael 5.Parque Nacional Torres del Paine 6.Desierto del Atacama 7.Viña del Mar CHILE Reasons Why: 1.Capital of Chile 2.Home to nearly 600 stone statues known as moais 3.Mountain Range that makes up most of Chile 4.Home to sea green glaciers 5.Home to almost perfectly vertical, dangerous peeks. 6.The driest desert in the world. 7.Famous Beach found on Chile’s Pacific Coast.

6 Los Mapuches Pedro de Valdivia Augusto Pinochet Salvador Allende Pedro Lira Pablo Neruda Gabriela Mistral Native people of Chile known for their bravery Founded Santiago in 1541 Former Chilean president Former Chilean dictator Famous Chilean artist Famous Chilean poet People to KnowReason Why: CHILE Both won Nobel Prize for Literature

7 Apellidos (Last names) in Latin American countries give information about BOTH of someone’s parents & their family. A person named Juan Perez Herrera is telling the last name of both of his parents- Perez is the last name of Juan’s father and Herrera is the last name of Juan’s mother. In Latin American countries, one carries both last names- the father’s first and then the mother’s. La Familia in Spanish speaking countries often does not refer only to one’s immediate family but also members of the extended family. In Spanish speaking countries, extended family members get together often and in some cases, elderly family members live with younger members of the family. NOTAS CULTURALES: PÁGINAS 160 Y 173


9 Possessive Adjectives are used to show ownership or a relationship between people and/or things. Possessive Adjectives is Spanish, while referring to the owner, their form must match the number and gender (if applicable) of the object that it is referring to. Possessive Adjectives (unlike descriptive adjectives) are placed before the noun. Possessive Adjectives are used to shorten the phrase de + person. For example: El libro de Juan (Juan’s book) becomes su libro (his book) POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVESPOSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES- PAGE 162

10 SingularPlural My Your (tú) Your (usted) His Her Our Your (vosotros) Your (ustedes) Their POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES- PAGE 162

11 SingularPlural MyMiMis Your (tú)TuTus Your (usted)SuSus HisSuSus HerSuSus OurNuestro Nuestra Nuestros Nuestras Your (vosotros)Vuestro Vuestra Vuestros Vuestras Your (ustedes)SuSus TheirSuSus POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES- PAGE 162

12 Present tense is used to describe actions that occur in the Present I run I am running I do run Do I run? Every verb in Spanish has a stem followed by an ending. The stem is everything before the ending and tells the verb’s meaning. The ending in Spanish can tell you who is the subject. The infinitive ending doesn’t name a subject. Cantar  to sing Canto  I sing Cantamos  we sing PRESENT TENSE (REPASO)

13 To conjugate a verb means to change the verbs from the infinitive form to match the subject. To conjugate a verb in Spanish in Present Tense: 1.Drop the ending from the infinitive (the –ar, -er, or –ir) 2.Add the ending that matches the particular subject The following slide will show all the present tense endings… PRESENT TENSE (REPASO)

14 -AR verbs-ER verbs-IR verbs yo tú usted él ella Nosotros (as) Vosotros(as) ustedes Ellos(as) PRESENT TENSE (REPASO)

15 -AR verbs-ER verbs-IR verbs yo-o tú-as-es usted-a-e él-a-e ella-a-e Nosotros (as)-amos-emos-imos Vosotros(as)-áis-éis-ís ustedes-an-en Ellos(as)-an-en PRESENT TENSE (REPASO)

16 Since the ending of the verb can tell the subject, the subjects for yo, tú, nosotros, & vosotros can be omitted because their verb endings ONLY match their subjects. These subjects or their subject pronouns can be added to emphasize or clarify who is being talked about. Ana y yo cantamos. (Ana & I sing) Cantamos. (We sing) PRESENT TENSE (REPASO) -AR verbs-ER verbs-IR verbs yo-o tú-as-es Nosotros (as)-amos-emos-imos Vosotros(as)-áis-éis-ís

17 The subjects usted, él, and ella share the same ending and the subjects ustedes and ellos share the same endings. As a result, the subject MUST be used to clarify! Cantan (They sing or you sing) Ellos cantan. (They sing) Ana y usted cantan. (Ana and you sing) PRESENT TENSE (REPASO) -AR verbs-ER verbs-IR verbs usted-a-e él-a-e ella-a-e ustedes-an-en ellos-an-en

18 EnglishSpanishEnglishSpanish I workWe works You workYou works You (ud.) workYou (uds.) work He worksThey work She works PRESENT TENSE (REPASO) TRABAJAR- TO WORK

19 EnglishSpanishEnglishSpanish I workTrabajoWe worksTrabajamos You workTrabajasYou worksTrabajáis You (ud.) workUsted trabajaYou (uds.) workUstedes trabajan He worksÉl trabajaThey workEllos trabajan She worksElla trabaja PRESENT TENSE TRABAJAR- TO WORK PRESENT TENSE (REPASO) TRABAJAR- TO WORK

20 Some verbs are referred to as Stem-changing verbs. In these cases, the stem of the verb (everything before the ending) will change in all forms except nosotros & vosotros (This is known as the BOOT shape) There are 4 types of stem-changes in Spanish. e  ie e  i o  ue u  ue (VERY RARE) PRESENT TENSE STEM-CHANGES

21 EnglishSpanishEnglishSpanish I sleepWe sleep You sleep You (ud.) sleepYou (uds.) sleep He sleepsThey sleep She sleeps PRESENT TENSE (REPASO) JUGAR (U;UE)- TO PLAY PRESENT TENSE O;UE STEM CHANGE (PG 164) DORMIR (O;UE)- TO PLAY

22 EnglishSpanishEnglishSpanish I sleepDuermoWe sleepDormimos You sleepDuermesYou sleepDormís You (ud.) sleepUsted DuermeYou (uds.) sleepUstedes Duermen He sleepsÉl DuermeThey sleepEllos Duermen She sleepsElla Duerme PRESENT TENSE U;UE STEM CHANGE (PG 164) DORMIR(O;UE)- TO PLAY

23 Jugar (u;ue) Dormir Almorzar Volver Llover To play (games/sports) To sleep To have lunch To return (to a place) To rain COMMON O;UE STEM CHANGING VERBS

24 EnglishSpanishEnglishSpanish I wantWe want You want You (ud.) wantYou (uds.) want He wantsThey want She wants PRESENT TENSE E;IE STEM CHANGE (PG. 164) QUERER (E;IE)- TO WANT

25 EnglishSpanishEnglishSpanish I wantQuieroWe wantQueremos You wantQuieresYou wantQueréis You (ud.) wantUsted quiereYou (uds.) wantUstedes quieren He wantsÉl quiereThey wantEllos quieren She wantsElla quiere PRESENT TENSE QUERER (E;IE)- TO WANT PRESENT TENSE E;IE STEM CHANGE (PG. 164) QUERER (E;IE)- TO WANT

26 Empezar Merendar Entender Querer Tener *Tengo Venir *Vengo To begin To have a snack To understand To want To have *I have To come *I come COMMON E;IE STEM CHANGING VERBS

27 Some verbs are irregular and MUST be completely memorized! Ir- to go is one such verb. The following slide shows the conjugation of the verb ir- to go PRESENT TENSE THE VERB IR- TO GO

28 EnglishSpanishEnglishSpanish I go (am going)We go (are going) You go (are going) You (ud.) go (are going) You (uds.) go (are going) He goes (is going) They go (are going) She goes (is going) PRESENT TENSE IR- TO GO

29 EnglishSpanishEnglishSpanish I go (am going)voyWe go (are going)vamos You go (are going)vasYou go (are going)vais You (ud.) go (are going) Usted va You (uds.) go (are going) Ustedes van He goes (is going)Él va They go (are going) Ellos van She goes (is going)Ella va PRESENT TENSE IR- TO GO

30 The preposition a is used after the verbs ir and jugar. After the verb ir, a is used to mean to. Voy a la iglesia. I go to the church. Similarly, after the verb jugar, a is used with a sport. Jugamos al golf. We play golf. Remember that the preposition a combines with the definite article el to make al. **Also remember that the preposition de combines with the definite article el to make del. IR A + INFINITIVE (REPASO-PAGE 136)

31 Both verbs mean to be The difference is that Ser refers to things that are permanent and Estar refers to things that are temporary. To remember which verb to use: For Ser use D.O.T.T.I.P. and for Estar use H.E.L.P.C.T. SER VS. ESTAR (NOTES)

32 D- Descriptions O- Origin T- Time T- Traits (permanent) I- Identification P- Possession (or Profession) H- Health E- Emotions L- Location P- Progressive Tense C- Conditions T- Traits (changing) SERESTAR SER VS. ESTAR (NOTES)

33 Al lado de Cerca de Debajo de Delante de Detrás de Encima de Lejos de Next to Near, Close to Underneath In front of Behind On top of, Above Far from Because Estar deals with Location, it is important to know your prepositions! (see page 174) SER VS. ESTAR (NOTES)

34 SerTo beEstar I am You (informal) are You (formal) are He is She is We are You (informal) are You (formal) are They are

35 SerTo beEstar (Yo) soyI am(Yo) estoy (Tú) eresYou (informal) are(Tú) estás Usted esYou (formal) areUsted está Él esHe isÉl está Ella esShe isElla está (Nosotros/Nosotras) somos We are(Nosotros/Nosotras) estamos (Vosotros/Vosotras) soisYou (informal) are(Vosotros/Vosotras) estáis Ustedes sonYou (formal) areUstedes están Ellos/Ellas sonThey areEllos/Ellas están

36 Negative words in Spanish can take the place of the word no or can be added toward the end of a sentence that already has no. No voy a la clase. Nunca voy a la clase. No voy a la clase nunca. The words nada and nadie can both be used as a subject in a sentence in which case they are placed before the verb. Nada es facíl Nadie quiere sacar la basura. When nada and nadie are used after the verb, no must be placed before the verb. No quiero hacer nada. No hay nadie en clase hoy. NEGATIVE WORDS (PG. 176)

37 No Nunca Siempre Tampoco También Nada Algo Nadie Alguien Don’t/Do Not Never (ever) Always Neither/Not Either Also Nothing (Not anything) Something Nobody/Not Anybody Someone/Somebody NEGATIVE & POSITIVE WORDS

38 The verb Tocar is used to tell whose turn it is to do something or what your duties are. Tocar is usually followed by an infinitive and may be conjugated like the verb gustar. A ti te toca limpiar el cuarto It is your turn to clean the room. Hoy le toca a Juan. Today, It’s Juan’s turn. THE VERB TOCAR- PG. 178

39 THE VERB TOCAR Singular (object)Plural (object) It is my turnA mí Me tocaA mí Me tocan It is your (tú) turnA ti Te tocaA ti Te tocan It is your (usted) turnA usted Le tocaA usted Le tocan It is his turnA él Le tocaA él Le tocan It is her turnA ella Le tocaA ella Le tocan It is our turnA Nosotros Nos tocaA Nosotros Nos tocan It is your (vosotros) turnA Vosotros Os tocaA Vosotros Os tocan It is your (ustedes) turnA Ustedes Les tocaA Ustedes Les tocan It is their turnA Ellos Les tocaA Ellos Les tocan

40 The verb Parecer is used to tell how something may seem to someone. It is very common to use this verb when asking for or giving an opinion. Parecer is conjugated like the verb gustar. A ti te parece injusto limpiar el cuarto To you it seems unjust to clean the room. A Juan le parece bien jugar al golf. To Juan it seems good to play golf. THE VERB PARECER PG. 178

41 THE VERB PARECER Singular (object)Plural (object) It seems to meA mí Me pareceA mí Me parecen It seems to you (tú)A ti Te pareceA ti Te parecen It seems to you (usted)A usted Le pareceA usted Le parecen It seems to hiimA él Le pareceA él Le parecen It seems to herA ella Le pareceA ella Le parecen It seems to usA Nosotros Nos pareceA Nosotros Nos parecen It seems to you (vosotros)A Vosotros Os pareceA Vosotros Os parecen It seems to you (ustedes)A Ustedes Les pareceA Ustedes Les parecen It seems to themA Ellos Les pareceA Ellos Les parecen

42 VOCABULARIO Vocabulary

43 Vocabulary for this Chapter can be found on page 187 in your textbook and on your Chapter 5-Part I and Chapter 5-Part II Vocabulary Lists (located on EaglePoint). Also- don’t forget to look at your ¡Exprésate! boxes VOCABULARIO

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